Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion.
Bottom Line: Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact with another cell.Here, we revisit the concept that CIL plays a central role in the migration of single cells and in collective migration, during both health and disease.Finally, we propose possible cell surface proteins that could be involved in the initial contact that regulates Rho GTPases during CIL.
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. email@example.comShow MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: The concept of CIL describes the observed behaviour of a cell to change the direction of its movement after contact with another cell (Box 1). The typical sequence of cell activities implicated in CIL are: (i) cell–cell contact, (ii) inhibition of cell protrusive activities at the site of contact, (iii) generation of a new protrusion away from the site of cell contact and (iv) migration in the direction of the new protrusion (Figure 1a). However, this sequence can be modified by different factors. For example, one of the cells might not be responsive to the other and thus, only one of the cells will be redirected. The number of surrounding cells can also alter the outcome of CIL. This four-step sequence is usually observed when individual cells, such as two fibroblasts, collide. However, in a sheet of cells only the cells at the free edge will produce lamellipodia whereas cells in contact with others at the centre of the cluster will generate smaller and more transient protrusions, if any. In this case, CIL will lead to the inhibition of cell protrusions of the inner cells in a cluster (Figure 1b). If a cluster of packed cells has a free edge, only the cells at the leading edge will produce protrusions. This can lead to directional migration of the whole cluster (Figure 1b), [2,4]. As a consequence of this behaviour, cells exhibiting CIL do not crawl over their neighbours leading to monolayer formation in groups and to scattering in single cells.
Affiliation: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org