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Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology.

Memarian N, Venetsanopoulos AN, Chau T - Biomed Eng Online (2010)

Bottom Line: User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard.Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture.Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion.

Methods: In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information.

Results: User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture.

Conclusions: Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

Show MeSH
Efficiency of infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials, for all ten participants. The vertical lines show standard deviation.
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Figure 3: Efficiency of infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials, for all ten participants. The vertical lines show standard deviation.

Mentions: A plot of the participants' efficiency with the infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials is shown in Figure 3. From visual inspection, the chin switch seems to exhibit higher efficiency than the infrared thermal switch in most cases. However, a two sample KS test indicated no significant differences between the efficiency measure for the two switches, across participants (p = 0.16).


Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology.

Memarian N, Venetsanopoulos AN, Chau T - Biomed Eng Online (2010)

Efficiency of infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials, for all ten participants. The vertical lines show standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927594&req=5

Figure 3: Efficiency of infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials, for all ten participants. The vertical lines show standard deviation.
Mentions: A plot of the participants' efficiency with the infrared thermal and chin switches averaged over all eighteen trials is shown in Figure 3. From visual inspection, the chin switch seems to exhibit higher efficiency than the infrared thermal switch in most cases. However, a two sample KS test indicated no significant differences between the efficiency measure for the two switches, across participants (p = 0.16).

Bottom Line: User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard.Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture.Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion.

Methods: In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information.

Results: User performance (p = 0.16) and response time (p = 0.25) with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture.

Conclusions: Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

Show MeSH