Limits...
Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

Eu CH, Lim WY, Ton SH, bin Abdul Kadir K - Lipids Health Dis (2010)

Bottom Line: With regard to lipid metabolism, GA administration led to significant hypotriglyceridemic and HDL-raising effects (p < 0.05), with a consistent reduction in serum free fatty acid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and significant decrease in tissue lipid deposition across all studied tissue (p < 0.01).Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition.The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state.

Results: Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). LPL expression was up-regulated in the kidney, heart, quadriceps femoris, abdominal muscle and the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues but down-regulated in the liver--a condition in reverse to that seen in high-fat diet-induced obese rats without GA. With regard to lipid metabolism, GA administration led to significant hypotriglyceridemic and HDL-raising effects (p < 0.05), with a consistent reduction in serum free fatty acid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and significant decrease in tissue lipid deposition across all studied tissue (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative LPL expression of Group C compared to B. Fold difference of LPL expression in tissues studied, using BAC as the endogenous reference, tissues of rats from group B as the calibrator and tissues of rats from group C as the target. LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues except the liver. [Group B: rats fed on high-fat diet without GA; Group C: rats fed on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927592&req=5

Figure 2: Relative LPL expression of Group C compared to B. Fold difference of LPL expression in tissues studied, using BAC as the endogenous reference, tissues of rats from group B as the calibrator and tissues of rats from group C as the target. LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues except the liver. [Group B: rats fed on high-fat diet without GA; Group C: rats fed on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA].

Mentions: In comparing between rats on normal diet (group A) and rats on high-fat diet (group B), LPL expression was downregulated in all tissues in the latter except the liver (Figure 1). The heart showed the highest decrease with a fold difference of -4.184 ± 0.25, followed by the abdominal muscle (AM) (- 4.059 ± 0.31), kidney (-2.483 ± 0.32 fold), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (-2.924 ± 0.39 fold), quadriceps femoris (QF) (-1.970 ± 0.65) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (-1.361 ± 0.76). No significant differences were seen in any of the tissues when comparing the two groups (p > 0.05). In the liver, LPL was up-regulated by 1.539 ± 1.10 fold (p > 0.05). When comparing rats from group B with group C (rats on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA), the reverse was observed where LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues in the latter group (Figure 2) except the liver. The highest up-regulation was observed in the QF (fold difference = 2.786 ± 2.22) followed by the AM (2.715 ± 2.65), heart (2.076 ± 1.78), SAT (1.935 ± 1.89), kidney (1.486 ± 1.38) and VAT (1.058 ± 0.35). These increases were not significant (p > 0.05). LPL expression in the liver was down-regulated by a fold of -1.443 ± 0.71 and this was not significant (p > 0.05).


Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

Eu CH, Lim WY, Ton SH, bin Abdul Kadir K - Lipids Health Dis (2010)

Relative LPL expression of Group C compared to B. Fold difference of LPL expression in tissues studied, using BAC as the endogenous reference, tissues of rats from group B as the calibrator and tissues of rats from group C as the target. LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues except the liver. [Group B: rats fed on high-fat diet without GA; Group C: rats fed on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927592&req=5

Figure 2: Relative LPL expression of Group C compared to B. Fold difference of LPL expression in tissues studied, using BAC as the endogenous reference, tissues of rats from group B as the calibrator and tissues of rats from group C as the target. LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues except the liver. [Group B: rats fed on high-fat diet without GA; Group C: rats fed on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA].
Mentions: In comparing between rats on normal diet (group A) and rats on high-fat diet (group B), LPL expression was downregulated in all tissues in the latter except the liver (Figure 1). The heart showed the highest decrease with a fold difference of -4.184 ± 0.25, followed by the abdominal muscle (AM) (- 4.059 ± 0.31), kidney (-2.483 ± 0.32 fold), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (-2.924 ± 0.39 fold), quadriceps femoris (QF) (-1.970 ± 0.65) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (-1.361 ± 0.76). No significant differences were seen in any of the tissues when comparing the two groups (p > 0.05). In the liver, LPL was up-regulated by 1.539 ± 1.10 fold (p > 0.05). When comparing rats from group B with group C (rats on high-fat diet and given 100 mg/kg of GA), the reverse was observed where LPL expression was up-regulated in all tissues in the latter group (Figure 2) except the liver. The highest up-regulation was observed in the QF (fold difference = 2.786 ± 2.22) followed by the AM (2.715 ± 2.65), heart (2.076 ± 1.78), SAT (1.935 ± 1.89), kidney (1.486 ± 1.38) and VAT (1.058 ± 0.35). These increases were not significant (p > 0.05). LPL expression in the liver was down-regulated by a fold of -1.443 ± 0.71 and this was not significant (p > 0.05).

Bottom Line: With regard to lipid metabolism, GA administration led to significant hypotriglyceridemic and HDL-raising effects (p < 0.05), with a consistent reduction in serum free fatty acid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and significant decrease in tissue lipid deposition across all studied tissue (p < 0.01).Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition.The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state.

Results: Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). LPL expression was up-regulated in the kidney, heart, quadriceps femoris, abdominal muscle and the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues but down-regulated in the liver--a condition in reverse to that seen in high-fat diet-induced obese rats without GA. With regard to lipid metabolism, GA administration led to significant hypotriglyceridemic and HDL-raising effects (p < 0.05), with a consistent reduction in serum free fatty acid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and significant decrease in tissue lipid deposition across all studied tissue (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus