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Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths.

Herr CE, Dostal M, Ghosh R, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Pinkerton KE, Sram R, Hertz-Picciotto I - Environ Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires.In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions.Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month.

Methods: Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD19+) and natural killer (NK) cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer in diameter (PM2.5) were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births.

Results: The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation.

Conclusions: PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations between air pollutants and CD19+ lymphocyte fractions. Percent changes in cord blood lymphocyte distributions, with 95% CI, associated with average increases of 100 ng/m3 of PAH by gestational month.
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Figure 7: Associations between air pollutants and CD19+ lymphocyte fractions. Percent changes in cord blood lymphocyte distributions, with 95% CI, associated with average increases of 100 ng/m3 of PAH by gestational month.

Mentions: The relationship between air pollution and B lymphocytes was opposite in direction to that of the T lymphocytes. The percentage of CD19+ cells was lower in the first month, showed no significant association with exposures from months two through six, and increased from months seven through nine for total PAH exposure. For a 100 ng/m3 increase in PAH exposure during month one was associated with a 1.1% (95% CI: 0.3, 2.0) decrease in CD19+ cells (Figure 7). In the third trimester there was an increase in percentage of CD19+ cells which peaked at 1.7% (95% CI: 0.9, 2.6) in month nine for a similar increase in exposure.


Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths.

Herr CE, Dostal M, Ghosh R, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Pinkerton KE, Sram R, Hertz-Picciotto I - Environ Health (2010)

Associations between air pollutants and CD19+ lymphocyte fractions. Percent changes in cord blood lymphocyte distributions, with 95% CI, associated with average increases of 100 ng/m3 of PAH by gestational month.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927516&req=5

Figure 7: Associations between air pollutants and CD19+ lymphocyte fractions. Percent changes in cord blood lymphocyte distributions, with 95% CI, associated with average increases of 100 ng/m3 of PAH by gestational month.
Mentions: The relationship between air pollution and B lymphocytes was opposite in direction to that of the T lymphocytes. The percentage of CD19+ cells was lower in the first month, showed no significant association with exposures from months two through six, and increased from months seven through nine for total PAH exposure. For a 100 ng/m3 increase in PAH exposure during month one was associated with a 1.1% (95% CI: 0.3, 2.0) decrease in CD19+ cells (Figure 7). In the third trimester there was an increase in percentage of CD19+ cells which peaked at 1.7% (95% CI: 0.9, 2.6) in month nine for a similar increase in exposure.

Bottom Line: Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires.In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions.Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month.

Methods: Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD19+) and natural killer (NK) cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer in diameter (PM2.5) were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births.

Results: The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation.

Conclusions: PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus