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The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries.

Zahl PH, De Leo D, Ekeberg Ø, Hjelmeland H, Dieserud G - BMC Psychiatry (2010)

Bottom Line: The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression.Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient.We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Suicide Research and Prevention, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. per-henrik.zahl@fhi.no

ABSTRACT

Background: In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates.

Methods: Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Results: There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either.

Conclusions: We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

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Sale figures of SSRIs (N06AB) in Denmark (violet), Finland (black), Norway (red) and Sweden (blue).
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Figure 3: Sale figures of SSRIs (N06AB) in Denmark (violet), Finland (black), Norway (red) and Sweden (blue).

Mentions: The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. These data represent total sales to pharmacies and institutions. Even though the data are complete, they do not necessarily represent consumption because not all drugs being sold are consumed. In the Nordic countries, drugs on the market are grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. The total national sales figures of ATC group N06A (all antidepressants), N06AB (SSRIs) and N06AA (TCAs) were recorded, and the sales figures were standardised as defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 inhabitants/day for the period 1975-2006. The sales figures are standardized as DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day, and presented graphically for all antidepressants (Figure 2), SSRIs (Figure 3) and TCAs (Figure 4). Note that Danish sales figures are missing in the period 1990-93.


The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries.

Zahl PH, De Leo D, Ekeberg Ø, Hjelmeland H, Dieserud G - BMC Psychiatry (2010)

Sale figures of SSRIs (N06AB) in Denmark (violet), Finland (black), Norway (red) and Sweden (blue).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2927503&req=5

Figure 3: Sale figures of SSRIs (N06AB) in Denmark (violet), Finland (black), Norway (red) and Sweden (blue).
Mentions: The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. These data represent total sales to pharmacies and institutions. Even though the data are complete, they do not necessarily represent consumption because not all drugs being sold are consumed. In the Nordic countries, drugs on the market are grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. The total national sales figures of ATC group N06A (all antidepressants), N06AB (SSRIs) and N06AA (TCAs) were recorded, and the sales figures were standardised as defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 inhabitants/day for the period 1975-2006. The sales figures are standardized as DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day, and presented graphically for all antidepressants (Figure 2), SSRIs (Figure 3) and TCAs (Figure 4). Note that Danish sales figures are missing in the period 1990-93.

Bottom Line: The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression.Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient.We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Suicide Research and Prevention, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. per-henrik.zahl@fhi.no

ABSTRACT

Background: In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates.

Methods: Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Results: There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either.

Conclusions: We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus