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Diagnostic methods for feline coronavirus: a review.

Sharif S, Arshad SS, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Zeenathul NA, Alazawy A - Vet Med Int (2010)

Bottom Line: Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world.Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor D. E. 43400, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intestines of a cat with effusive FIP. Pyogranulomatous foci are seen as punctate fibrinous plaques on the serosal surface of the intestines.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Intestines of a cat with effusive FIP. Pyogranulomatous foci are seen as punctate fibrinous plaques on the serosal surface of the intestines.

Mentions: FIP is a disease with extremely diverse clinical manifestations. In the “wet” form, the most characteristic sign is a considerable amount of intracavitary effusion (Figure 1). The typical lesions of effusive FIP are pyogranuloma and fibrinous plaques on the serosal surfaces of abdominal organs (Figures 2 and 3). Dyspnea, mild pyrexia, and muffled heart sounds are common. Ocular involvement in FIP can include uveitis, keratic precipitations, and changes in the coloration of the iris. In the non-effusive form, lesions commonly occur in eyes and CNS, but granulomas may also be found in the peritoneal cavity, leading to more diverse, and often more vague, clinical signs [15, 29] (Figure 4).


Diagnostic methods for feline coronavirus: a review.

Sharif S, Arshad SS, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Zeenathul NA, Alazawy A - Vet Med Int (2010)

Intestines of a cat with effusive FIP. Pyogranulomatous foci are seen as punctate fibrinous plaques on the serosal surface of the intestines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2926681&req=5

fig2: Intestines of a cat with effusive FIP. Pyogranulomatous foci are seen as punctate fibrinous plaques on the serosal surface of the intestines.
Mentions: FIP is a disease with extremely diverse clinical manifestations. In the “wet” form, the most characteristic sign is a considerable amount of intracavitary effusion (Figure 1). The typical lesions of effusive FIP are pyogranuloma and fibrinous plaques on the serosal surfaces of abdominal organs (Figures 2 and 3). Dyspnea, mild pyrexia, and muffled heart sounds are common. Ocular involvement in FIP can include uveitis, keratic precipitations, and changes in the coloration of the iris. In the non-effusive form, lesions commonly occur in eyes and CNS, but granulomas may also be found in the peritoneal cavity, leading to more diverse, and often more vague, clinical signs [15, 29] (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world.Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor D. E. 43400, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus