Limits...
3D finite compartment modeling of formation and healing of bruises may identify methods for age determination of bruises.

Stam B, van Gemert MJ, van Leeuwen TG, Aalders MC - Med Biol Eng Comput (2010)

Bottom Line: We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises.Healing is faster for smaller bruises in thinner and less dense skin.Combining our model predictions with individual natural bruises may allow optimizing our model parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. b.stam@amc.nl

ABSTRACT
Simulating the spatial and temporal behavior of bruises may identify methods that allow accurate age determination of bruises to assess child abuse. We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises. Using this model, we studied how skin thickness, bruise diameter and diffusivities affect the formation and healing of circular symmetric bruises and compared a simulated bruise with a natural inhomogeneous bruise. Healing is faster for smaller bruises in thinner and less dense skin. The simulated and natural bruises showed similar spatial and temporal dynamics. The different spatio-temporal dynamics of hemoglobin and bilirubin allows age determination of model bruises. Combining our model predictions with individual natural bruises may allow optimizing our model parameters. It may particularly identify methods for more accurate age determination than currently possible to aid the assessment of child abuse.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

a Non homogeneous natural bruise photographed on 3 different days (cross sect. 40 mm). Ballpoint stripes were drawn for orientation. b Simulations of a non homogeneous bruise (starting blood pool extracted from photo day 1) Dermal thickness = 1000 μm, DHb 1.6 × 10−9 m2/h, DB 6.4 × 10−9 m2/h, τB 100 h, concentration HO = 10.5 mg/l. Ballpoint stripes were placed on the same location for comparison
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2926474&req=5

Fig7: a Non homogeneous natural bruise photographed on 3 different days (cross sect. 40 mm). Ballpoint stripes were drawn for orientation. b Simulations of a non homogeneous bruise (starting blood pool extracted from photo day 1) Dermal thickness = 1000 μm, DHb 1.6 × 10−9 m2/h, DB 6.4 × 10−9 m2/h, τB 100 h, concentration HO = 10.5 mg/l. Ballpoint stripes were placed on the same location for comparison

Mentions: For the non homogeneous shaped starting blood pool (Fig. 7b, day 0), derived from the photos of a natural bruise (Fig. 7a, day 1), a qualitative comparison of the temporal and spatial distributions of hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations in this natural versus the simulated bruise is presented in Fig. 7. On day 1, the amount of hemoglobin is highest, and confined in a restricted area. Small amounts of bilirubin are visible. On day 4, the amount of hemoglobin is lower than on day 1, and bilirubin has filled the areas between the different hemoglobin parts. On day 7, the upper part of the bruise has almost resolved, where the lower part contains mainly bilirubin. Figure 8 shows the total areas of the hemoglobin and bilirubin parts over time, both for the simulated bruise and for the natural bruise. The total simulated hemoglobin area matches the total hemoglobin area of the natural bruise at several time points for a single set of parameters. The total bilirubin area of the simulated bruise matches the total bilirubin area of the natural bruise in the first 100 h. After 100 h, the total bilirubin area of the simulated bruise is overestimated compared to the natural bruise.Fig. 7


3D finite compartment modeling of formation and healing of bruises may identify methods for age determination of bruises.

Stam B, van Gemert MJ, van Leeuwen TG, Aalders MC - Med Biol Eng Comput (2010)

a Non homogeneous natural bruise photographed on 3 different days (cross sect. 40 mm). Ballpoint stripes were drawn for orientation. b Simulations of a non homogeneous bruise (starting blood pool extracted from photo day 1) Dermal thickness = 1000 μm, DHb 1.6 × 10−9 m2/h, DB 6.4 × 10−9 m2/h, τB 100 h, concentration HO = 10.5 mg/l. Ballpoint stripes were placed on the same location for comparison
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2926474&req=5

Fig7: a Non homogeneous natural bruise photographed on 3 different days (cross sect. 40 mm). Ballpoint stripes were drawn for orientation. b Simulations of a non homogeneous bruise (starting blood pool extracted from photo day 1) Dermal thickness = 1000 μm, DHb 1.6 × 10−9 m2/h, DB 6.4 × 10−9 m2/h, τB 100 h, concentration HO = 10.5 mg/l. Ballpoint stripes were placed on the same location for comparison
Mentions: For the non homogeneous shaped starting blood pool (Fig. 7b, day 0), derived from the photos of a natural bruise (Fig. 7a, day 1), a qualitative comparison of the temporal and spatial distributions of hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations in this natural versus the simulated bruise is presented in Fig. 7. On day 1, the amount of hemoglobin is highest, and confined in a restricted area. Small amounts of bilirubin are visible. On day 4, the amount of hemoglobin is lower than on day 1, and bilirubin has filled the areas between the different hemoglobin parts. On day 7, the upper part of the bruise has almost resolved, where the lower part contains mainly bilirubin. Figure 8 shows the total areas of the hemoglobin and bilirubin parts over time, both for the simulated bruise and for the natural bruise. The total simulated hemoglobin area matches the total hemoglobin area of the natural bruise at several time points for a single set of parameters. The total bilirubin area of the simulated bruise matches the total bilirubin area of the natural bruise in the first 100 h. After 100 h, the total bilirubin area of the simulated bruise is overestimated compared to the natural bruise.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises.Healing is faster for smaller bruises in thinner and less dense skin.Combining our model predictions with individual natural bruises may allow optimizing our model parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. b.stam@amc.nl

ABSTRACT
Simulating the spatial and temporal behavior of bruises may identify methods that allow accurate age determination of bruises to assess child abuse. We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises. Using this model, we studied how skin thickness, bruise diameter and diffusivities affect the formation and healing of circular symmetric bruises and compared a simulated bruise with a natural inhomogeneous bruise. Healing is faster for smaller bruises in thinner and less dense skin. The simulated and natural bruises showed similar spatial and temporal dynamics. The different spatio-temporal dynamics of hemoglobin and bilirubin allows age determination of model bruises. Combining our model predictions with individual natural bruises may allow optimizing our model parameters. It may particularly identify methods for more accurate age determination than currently possible to aid the assessment of child abuse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus