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Applying new research criteria for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease: sex and intelligence matter.

Beinhoff U, Tumani H, Riepe MW - Int J Alzheimers Dis (2009)

Bottom Line: Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be diagnosed according to new research criteria proposed recently (Dubois et al., 2007).Women with lower IQ performed worse on visuospatial episodic memory than women with higher IQ and men with the same IQ.Gender, premorbid IQ, and visuospatial material need to be considered in the assessment of episodic memory breakdown applying the newly proposed research criteria for the diagnosis of AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health and Old Age Psychiatry, Charité Medical University, 14050 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be diagnosed according to new research criteria proposed recently (Dubois et al., 2007). Diagnosis is made on grounds of episodic memory deficits and one pathological biomarker: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or structural/functional imaging. Goal was to investigate the dependence of episodic memory function on material (verbal, visuospatial), gender and premorbid intellectual ability (IQ). The new research criteria of AD were applied retrospectively using data of 68 patients (Mini-Mental-Status Examination, MMSE >/= 22) from a university memory clinic. Women with lower IQ performed worse on visuospatial episodic memory than women with higher IQ and men with the same IQ. Thus, women with lower IQ appear to be particularly vulnerable to visuospatial episodic memory deficits despite similar CSF tau values indicating a similar activity of the neurodegenerative process. Gender, premorbid IQ, and visuospatial material need to be considered in the assessment of episodic memory breakdown applying the newly proposed research criteria for the diagnosis of AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Visuospatial episodic memory performance (bars indicate % of maximum score) in comparison to CSF tau values (lines) in male and female AD patients. Higher memory scores indicate better performance. Higher CSF tau values indicate more advanced disease (activity).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Visuospatial episodic memory performance (bars indicate % of maximum score) in comparison to CSF tau values (lines) in male and female AD patients. Higher memory scores indicate better performance. Higher CSF tau values indicate more advanced disease (activity).

Mentions: High functioning elders are particularly difficult to diagnose, as they score too high on standard tests for which the norms were established in populations of average general intellectual abilities [49]. Comparable to other studies in healthy adults [12, 40, 41], we found significant differences in cognitive function in AD patients depending on their premorbid IQ level. Male AD patients with higher IQ had better test results regarding their immediate memory for visuospatial material than male AD patients with lower IQ. CSF tau values (i.e., disease activity) were not different for male AD patients. These findings indicate a higher capacity for men with higher intelligence. Similar results were found in female patients for long delayed recall of visuospatial material. Although their CSF tau value was numerically (but not significantly) increased, women with higher IQ showed even better test results on their visuospatial episodic memory than women with lower IQ (see Figure 1), also indicating a higher capacity for women with higher intelligence.


Applying new research criteria for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease: sex and intelligence matter.

Beinhoff U, Tumani H, Riepe MW - Int J Alzheimers Dis (2009)

Visuospatial episodic memory performance (bars indicate % of maximum score) in comparison to CSF tau values (lines) in male and female AD patients. Higher memory scores indicate better performance. Higher CSF tau values indicate more advanced disease (activity).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2925096&req=5

fig1: Visuospatial episodic memory performance (bars indicate % of maximum score) in comparison to CSF tau values (lines) in male and female AD patients. Higher memory scores indicate better performance. Higher CSF tau values indicate more advanced disease (activity).
Mentions: High functioning elders are particularly difficult to diagnose, as they score too high on standard tests for which the norms were established in populations of average general intellectual abilities [49]. Comparable to other studies in healthy adults [12, 40, 41], we found significant differences in cognitive function in AD patients depending on their premorbid IQ level. Male AD patients with higher IQ had better test results regarding their immediate memory for visuospatial material than male AD patients with lower IQ. CSF tau values (i.e., disease activity) were not different for male AD patients. These findings indicate a higher capacity for men with higher intelligence. Similar results were found in female patients for long delayed recall of visuospatial material. Although their CSF tau value was numerically (but not significantly) increased, women with higher IQ showed even better test results on their visuospatial episodic memory than women with lower IQ (see Figure 1), also indicating a higher capacity for women with higher intelligence.

Bottom Line: Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be diagnosed according to new research criteria proposed recently (Dubois et al., 2007).Women with lower IQ performed worse on visuospatial episodic memory than women with higher IQ and men with the same IQ.Gender, premorbid IQ, and visuospatial material need to be considered in the assessment of episodic memory breakdown applying the newly proposed research criteria for the diagnosis of AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health and Old Age Psychiatry, Charité Medical University, 14050 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be diagnosed according to new research criteria proposed recently (Dubois et al., 2007). Diagnosis is made on grounds of episodic memory deficits and one pathological biomarker: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or structural/functional imaging. Goal was to investigate the dependence of episodic memory function on material (verbal, visuospatial), gender and premorbid intellectual ability (IQ). The new research criteria of AD were applied retrospectively using data of 68 patients (Mini-Mental-Status Examination, MMSE >/= 22) from a university memory clinic. Women with lower IQ performed worse on visuospatial episodic memory than women with higher IQ and men with the same IQ. Thus, women with lower IQ appear to be particularly vulnerable to visuospatial episodic memory deficits despite similar CSF tau values indicating a similar activity of the neurodegenerative process. Gender, premorbid IQ, and visuospatial material need to be considered in the assessment of episodic memory breakdown applying the newly proposed research criteria for the diagnosis of AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus