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Chelation in metal intoxication.

Flora SJ, Pachauri V - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak.Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently.In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India. sjsflora@drde.drdo.in

ABSTRACT
Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Chemical reaction of lewisite with British Anti Lewisite (BAL) to give a stable 5-membered ring complex.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f5-ijerph-07-02745: Chemical reaction of lewisite with British Anti Lewisite (BAL) to give a stable 5-membered ring complex.

Mentions: 2,3-Dimercaprol (BAL) is a traditional chelating agent developed by British biochemists at Oxford University during World War II [33]. BAL has a 3-carbon backbone with two sulfhydryl (–SH) groups and a hydroxyl group. It has been used clinically since 1949 in arsenic, cadmium and mercury poisoning. It is an oily, clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, unpleasant typical mercaptan smell. It detoxifies lewisite by forming a five membered stable complex with arsenic (Figure 5). In humans and experimental models, the antidotal efficacy of BAL has been shown to be most effective when administered immediately after the exposure. Besides rapid mobilization of arsenic and mercury from the body, it causes a significant increase in brain deposition of arsenic and mercury compounds [34,35].


Chelation in metal intoxication.

Flora SJ, Pachauri V - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2010)

Chemical reaction of lewisite with British Anti Lewisite (BAL) to give a stable 5-membered ring complex.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2922724&req=5

f5-ijerph-07-02745: Chemical reaction of lewisite with British Anti Lewisite (BAL) to give a stable 5-membered ring complex.
Mentions: 2,3-Dimercaprol (BAL) is a traditional chelating agent developed by British biochemists at Oxford University during World War II [33]. BAL has a 3-carbon backbone with two sulfhydryl (–SH) groups and a hydroxyl group. It has been used clinically since 1949 in arsenic, cadmium and mercury poisoning. It is an oily, clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, unpleasant typical mercaptan smell. It detoxifies lewisite by forming a five membered stable complex with arsenic (Figure 5). In humans and experimental models, the antidotal efficacy of BAL has been shown to be most effective when administered immediately after the exposure. Besides rapid mobilization of arsenic and mercury from the body, it causes a significant increase in brain deposition of arsenic and mercury compounds [34,35].

Bottom Line: Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak.Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently.In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India. sjsflora@drde.drdo.in

ABSTRACT
Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus