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Tobacco coverage in print media: the use of timing and themes by tobacco control supporters and opposition before a failed tobacco tax initiative.

Harris JK, Shelton SC, Moreland-Russell S, Luke DA - Tob Control (2009)

Bottom Line: Despite having the second lowest cigarette tax rate in the nation, Missouri was unsuccessful in passing its 2006 ballot initiative to raise the tax.Finally, tobacco control position varied significantly across article types (chi(2)=148.3, p<0.01), with letters to the editor being anti-tobacco control most often.Tobacco control advocates must consider public opinion, opposition pressure, timing and themes in tobacco-related media coverage when promoting policy change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Tobacco Policy Research, Saint Louis University School of Public Health, 3545 Lafayette Ave, Suite 300, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. harrisjk@slu.edu

ABSTRACT

Objective: Tobacco control policies gained ground nationwide in 2006, with voters in nine states approving legislation to strengthen clean indoor air policies and increase tobacco excise taxes. Despite having the second lowest cigarette tax rate in the nation, Missouri was unsuccessful in passing its 2006 ballot initiative to raise the tax. An important way to encourage health-related policy change such as increasing tobacco taxes is through media coverage of tobacco issues. We examined how tobacco issues were presented in Missouri's print media leading up to the 2006 election.

Methods: This study analysed 1263 articles with tobacco content published in 187 Missouri newspapers in the year before the election. Articles were coded for general and tobacco-related characteristics including article type (news story, editorial, letter to the editor), tobacco control position (pro, neutral, anti) and article theme (economic, health, political).

Results: Most articles were news stories (73.6%) and pro-tobacco control (63.8%). The proportion of anti-tobacco control articles increased significantly (chi(2)=104.9, p<0.001) the month before the election, driven by an increase in economically themed articles. Economic articles were published more often in counties with less voter support for the tax (F=5.68, p<0.01). Finally, tobacco control position varied significantly across article types (chi(2)=148.3, p<0.01), with letters to the editor being anti-tobacco control most often.

Conclusion: The media have a critical role in promoting public health goals and presenting health issues which influences formation of health policies. Tobacco control advocates must consider public opinion, opposition pressure, timing and themes in tobacco-related media coverage when promoting policy change.

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Neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles surged just prior to the November 2006 election.
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fig3: Neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles surged just prior to the November 2006 election.

Mentions: In order to determine whether articles with specific dominant themes and positions were published closer to the election, we conducted a 3-by-3 factorial ANOVA with dominant theme and position as independent variables and month of publication as the dependent variable. We found significant differences (F=7.20, df=8, p<0.01) in the average month of publication for articles with each position and theme. While there were no significant main effects for theme (F=1.84, df=2, p=0.16) or position (F=2.84, df=2, p=0.06) the interaction term theme-by-position was significant (F=2.55, df=4, p=0.04). Figure 3 sheds light on the issue of timing, showing a distinct increase in neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles in the month before the election.


Tobacco coverage in print media: the use of timing and themes by tobacco control supporters and opposition before a failed tobacco tax initiative.

Harris JK, Shelton SC, Moreland-Russell S, Luke DA - Tob Control (2009)

Neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles surged just prior to the November 2006 election.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2921260&req=5

fig3: Neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles surged just prior to the November 2006 election.
Mentions: In order to determine whether articles with specific dominant themes and positions were published closer to the election, we conducted a 3-by-3 factorial ANOVA with dominant theme and position as independent variables and month of publication as the dependent variable. We found significant differences (F=7.20, df=8, p<0.01) in the average month of publication for articles with each position and theme. While there were no significant main effects for theme (F=1.84, df=2, p=0.16) or position (F=2.84, df=2, p=0.06) the interaction term theme-by-position was significant (F=2.55, df=4, p=0.04). Figure 3 sheds light on the issue of timing, showing a distinct increase in neutral and anti-tobacco control economic articles in the month before the election.

Bottom Line: Despite having the second lowest cigarette tax rate in the nation, Missouri was unsuccessful in passing its 2006 ballot initiative to raise the tax.Finally, tobacco control position varied significantly across article types (chi(2)=148.3, p<0.01), with letters to the editor being anti-tobacco control most often.Tobacco control advocates must consider public opinion, opposition pressure, timing and themes in tobacco-related media coverage when promoting policy change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Tobacco Policy Research, Saint Louis University School of Public Health, 3545 Lafayette Ave, Suite 300, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. harrisjk@slu.edu

ABSTRACT

Objective: Tobacco control policies gained ground nationwide in 2006, with voters in nine states approving legislation to strengthen clean indoor air policies and increase tobacco excise taxes. Despite having the second lowest cigarette tax rate in the nation, Missouri was unsuccessful in passing its 2006 ballot initiative to raise the tax. An important way to encourage health-related policy change such as increasing tobacco taxes is through media coverage of tobacco issues. We examined how tobacco issues were presented in Missouri's print media leading up to the 2006 election.

Methods: This study analysed 1263 articles with tobacco content published in 187 Missouri newspapers in the year before the election. Articles were coded for general and tobacco-related characteristics including article type (news story, editorial, letter to the editor), tobacco control position (pro, neutral, anti) and article theme (economic, health, political).

Results: Most articles were news stories (73.6%) and pro-tobacco control (63.8%). The proportion of anti-tobacco control articles increased significantly (chi(2)=104.9, p<0.001) the month before the election, driven by an increase in economically themed articles. Economic articles were published more often in counties with less voter support for the tax (F=5.68, p<0.01). Finally, tobacco control position varied significantly across article types (chi(2)=148.3, p<0.01), with letters to the editor being anti-tobacco control most often.

Conclusion: The media have a critical role in promoting public health goals and presenting health issues which influences formation of health policies. Tobacco control advocates must consider public opinion, opposition pressure, timing and themes in tobacco-related media coverage when promoting policy change.

Show MeSH