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Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines.

Chandran A, Fitzwater S, Zhen A, Santosham M - Biologics (2010)

Bottom Line: There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization.Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually.The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems.

ABSTRACT
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total deaths prevented by rotavirus vaccine in children aged under 5 years if introduced at level of DTP-3.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2921258&req=5

f4-btt-4-213: Total deaths prevented by rotavirus vaccine in children aged under 5 years if introduced at level of DTP-3.

Mentions: By applying the average efficacies from national income status to the regional rotavirus mortality and hospitalization estimates calculated by Parashar et al3 and to the country-level DTP-3 coverage in 2008,128 we are able to estimate the potential impact of rotavirus vaccine. Country-level reductions were summed to predict the potential impact of the vaccines on rotavirus deaths and rates of deaths based on national income status (Table 4), region (Table 5), and national levels (Figures 4–6).


Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines.

Chandran A, Fitzwater S, Zhen A, Santosham M - Biologics (2010)

Total deaths prevented by rotavirus vaccine in children aged under 5 years if introduced at level of DTP-3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2921258&req=5

f4-btt-4-213: Total deaths prevented by rotavirus vaccine in children aged under 5 years if introduced at level of DTP-3.
Mentions: By applying the average efficacies from national income status to the regional rotavirus mortality and hospitalization estimates calculated by Parashar et al3 and to the country-level DTP-3 coverage in 2008,128 we are able to estimate the potential impact of rotavirus vaccine. Country-level reductions were summed to predict the potential impact of the vaccines on rotavirus deaths and rates of deaths based on national income status (Table 4), region (Table 5), and national levels (Figures 4–6).

Bottom Line: There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization.Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually.The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems.

ABSTRACT
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus