Limits...
Malaria on isolated Melanesian islands prior to the initiation of malaria elimination activities.

- Malar. J. (2010)

Bottom Line: Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150) of children (2-12 y) were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410) of the provincial population participated in the survey.This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and surveillance.

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ABSTRACT

Background: The Australian Government's Pacific Malaria Initiative (PacMI) is supporting the National Malaria Program in both Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, complementing assistance from the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). Two remote island groups - Tafea Province, Vanuatu and Temotu Province, Solomon Islands have been selected by the governments of both countries as possible malaria elimination areas. To provide information on the prevalence and distribution of the disease within these island groups, malariometric surveys were conducted during the wet seasons of 2008.

Methods: In Tafea Province, a school-based survey was conducted which included the 2-12 y age group, while in Temotu a village based all-ages survey was conducted. An effort was made to sample villages or schools from a wide an area as possible on all islands. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150) of children (2-12 y) were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410) of the provincial population participated in the survey. In both Vanuatu and Solomon Islands malariometric surveys of their southern-most islands in 2008 showed relatively low over-all malaria parasite prevalence (2 to 3%). Other features of malaria in these island groups were low parasitaemia, low gametocyte carriage rates, low spleen rates, low malaria associated morbidity, a high incidence of asymptomatic infections, and a predominance of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum.

Conclusion: For various reasons malaria rates are declining in these provinces providing a favourable situation for local malaria elimination. This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and surveillance. It is as yet uncertain whether malaria parasites can themselves be sustainably eliminated from entire Melanesian islands, where they have previously been endemic. Key issues on the road to malaria elimination will be continued community involvement, improved field diagnostic methods and elimination of residual P. vivax parasites from the liver of asymptomatic persons.

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Malaria point prevalence map of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands showing parasite rates for a) P vivax and b) P falciparum based on microscopy results.
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Figure 3: Malaria point prevalence map of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands showing parasite rates for a) P vivax and b) P falciparum based on microscopy results.

Mentions: Temotu Province lies between 10 - 12°S and 165 - 167°E, it is the most southern Province in Solomon Islands (Figure 1). The Province is made up of five main island groups (Figure 3): Santa Cruz (or Ndendo; pop 12,112, including the provincial capital, Lata), the Reef Islands (pop 5,958), the Duff Islands (pop 556), Utupua Island (pop 1,300) and Vanikoro island (pop 1,602). The climate is continuous hot/wet with no distinct seasons. The median annual rainfall (based on 38 years of data) is 4,300 mm, each month averages 300-360 mm of precipitation and rainless periods rarely exceeded four days. The annual mean minimum and maximum temperatures are 24.1°C and 30.8°C respectively. All five main island groups were comprehensively covered in the survey. On Santa Cruz, most of the inland plateau region of the island (> 100 m) is uninhabited and nearly all villages are located along the coast.


Malaria on isolated Melanesian islands prior to the initiation of malaria elimination activities.

- Malar. J. (2010)

Malaria point prevalence map of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands showing parasite rates for a) P vivax and b) P falciparum based on microscopy results.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2921077&req=5

Figure 3: Malaria point prevalence map of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands showing parasite rates for a) P vivax and b) P falciparum based on microscopy results.
Mentions: Temotu Province lies between 10 - 12°S and 165 - 167°E, it is the most southern Province in Solomon Islands (Figure 1). The Province is made up of five main island groups (Figure 3): Santa Cruz (or Ndendo; pop 12,112, including the provincial capital, Lata), the Reef Islands (pop 5,958), the Duff Islands (pop 556), Utupua Island (pop 1,300) and Vanikoro island (pop 1,602). The climate is continuous hot/wet with no distinct seasons. The median annual rainfall (based on 38 years of data) is 4,300 mm, each month averages 300-360 mm of precipitation and rainless periods rarely exceeded four days. The annual mean minimum and maximum temperatures are 24.1°C and 30.8°C respectively. All five main island groups were comprehensively covered in the survey. On Santa Cruz, most of the inland plateau region of the island (> 100 m) is uninhabited and nearly all villages are located along the coast.

Bottom Line: Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150) of children (2-12 y) were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410) of the provincial population participated in the survey.This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and surveillance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The Australian Government's Pacific Malaria Initiative (PacMI) is supporting the National Malaria Program in both Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, complementing assistance from the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). Two remote island groups - Tafea Province, Vanuatu and Temotu Province, Solomon Islands have been selected by the governments of both countries as possible malaria elimination areas. To provide information on the prevalence and distribution of the disease within these island groups, malariometric surveys were conducted during the wet seasons of 2008.

Methods: In Tafea Province, a school-based survey was conducted which included the 2-12 y age group, while in Temotu a village based all-ages survey was conducted. An effort was made to sample villages or schools from a wide an area as possible on all islands. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150) of children (2-12 y) were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410) of the provincial population participated in the survey. In both Vanuatu and Solomon Islands malariometric surveys of their southern-most islands in 2008 showed relatively low over-all malaria parasite prevalence (2 to 3%). Other features of malaria in these island groups were low parasitaemia, low gametocyte carriage rates, low spleen rates, low malaria associated morbidity, a high incidence of asymptomatic infections, and a predominance of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum.

Conclusion: For various reasons malaria rates are declining in these provinces providing a favourable situation for local malaria elimination. This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and surveillance. It is as yet uncertain whether malaria parasites can themselves be sustainably eliminated from entire Melanesian islands, where they have previously been endemic. Key issues on the road to malaria elimination will be continued community involvement, improved field diagnostic methods and elimination of residual P. vivax parasites from the liver of asymptomatic persons.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus