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A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

Gillespie TR, Morgan D, Deutsch JC, Kuhlenschmidt MS, Salzer JS, Cameron K, Reed T, Sanz C - Ecohealth (2010)

Bottom Line: Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates.Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored.Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Studies and Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. thomas.gillespie@emory.edu

ABSTRACT
Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Land use in the Sangha Tri-National Conservation Area at the boundary of Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. The Goualougo Triangle is located in the southern portion of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. The Kabo Logging Concession is contiguous to the national park’s southern boundary.
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Fig1: Land use in the Sangha Tri-National Conservation Area at the boundary of Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. The Goualougo Triangle is located in the southern portion of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. The Kabo Logging Concession is contiguous to the national park’s southern boundary.

Mentions: The Sangha River Tri-National Conservation Area (36,236 km2) is notable for its extensive tracks of forest and transboundary protected area network: Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in Republic of Congo, Lobéké National Park in Cameroon, and Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve in Central African Republic (Fig. 1). This region is largely unpopulated with human densities estimated at 0.7 to 0.8 people per km2 (Auzel and Wilkie, 2000). Semi-nomadic Ba’Aka pygmies and Bantu agriculturalist-fishermen live in complex, interdependent economic and social relationships (Eves and Ruggiero, 2000). Most villages are along major waterways leaving the remote interior forest with little human development and associated pressures. However, commercial logging is rapidly expanding along the periphery of the Tri-National Conservation Area. Timber exploitation in these remote areas is relatively labor-intensive and can result in the transient relocation of skilled workers and their families, introducing the risk of novel opportunities for pathogen transmission from people to resident wildlife.Figure 1


A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

Gillespie TR, Morgan D, Deutsch JC, Kuhlenschmidt MS, Salzer JS, Cameron K, Reed T, Sanz C - Ecohealth (2010)

Land use in the Sangha Tri-National Conservation Area at the boundary of Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. The Goualougo Triangle is located in the southern portion of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. The Kabo Logging Concession is contiguous to the national park’s southern boundary.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2921064&req=5

Fig1: Land use in the Sangha Tri-National Conservation Area at the boundary of Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. The Goualougo Triangle is located in the southern portion of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. The Kabo Logging Concession is contiguous to the national park’s southern boundary.
Mentions: The Sangha River Tri-National Conservation Area (36,236 km2) is notable for its extensive tracks of forest and transboundary protected area network: Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in Republic of Congo, Lobéké National Park in Cameroon, and Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve in Central African Republic (Fig. 1). This region is largely unpopulated with human densities estimated at 0.7 to 0.8 people per km2 (Auzel and Wilkie, 2000). Semi-nomadic Ba’Aka pygmies and Bantu agriculturalist-fishermen live in complex, interdependent economic and social relationships (Eves and Ruggiero, 2000). Most villages are along major waterways leaving the remote interior forest with little human development and associated pressures. However, commercial logging is rapidly expanding along the periphery of the Tri-National Conservation Area. Timber exploitation in these remote areas is relatively labor-intensive and can result in the transient relocation of skilled workers and their families, introducing the risk of novel opportunities for pathogen transmission from people to resident wildlife.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates.Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored.Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Studies and Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. thomas.gillespie@emory.edu

ABSTRACT
Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus