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Roles of the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 in cell behavior.

Otey C, Goicoechea S, Garcia-Mata R - F1000 Biol Rep (2009)

Bottom Line: The Rho-family GTPases are proving to have a variety of biological functions apart from their well known effects on the cytoskeleton.Recent work indicates their involvement in signaling between the adhesion receptors integrin and syndecan, effects on the recruitment of beta-catenin to the nucleus, and potential roles in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 5320 MBRB, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Carol_Otey@med.unc.edu

ABSTRACT
The Rho-family GTPases are proving to have a variety of biological functions apart from their well known effects on the cytoskeleton. Recent work indicates their involvement in signaling between the adhesion receptors integrin and syndecan, effects on the recruitment of beta-catenin to the nucleus, and potential roles in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rac GTPases have a variety of roles. (a) Recent advances have shed new light on the upstream control of GTPases via adhesion receptors (integrins and syndecans), and on the pathways that localize active Rac to the membrane via vesicle trafficking. These are illustrated in a migrating fibroblast. (b) In adherent epithelial cells, signaling via Rac GTPases impacts on the localization of beta-catenin from the cell-cell junctions to the nucleus.
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fig-002: Rac GTPases have a variety of roles. (a) Recent advances have shed new light on the upstream control of GTPases via adhesion receptors (integrins and syndecans), and on the pathways that localize active Rac to the membrane via vesicle trafficking. These are illustrated in a migrating fibroblast. (b) In adherent epithelial cells, signaling via Rac GTPases impacts on the localization of beta-catenin from the cell-cell junctions to the nucleus.

Mentions: Important advances have also been made in understanding how signals initiated from outside of the cell can be transmitted through the plasma membrane to result in activation or inhibition of small GTPases (Figure 1). Almost ten years ago, it was shown that engagement of transmembrane integrin receptors results in a transient inhibition of RhoA [4]. More recently, an interesting study by Bass et al. [5] explored a mechanism that permits cross-talk between two different classes of adhesion receptors: integrins and syndecans (Figure 2a). This paper showed that the Rho inhibitor p190RhoGAP is phosphorylated as a consequence of integrin engagement (specifically, the integrin α5β 1), and then targeted to the membrane downstream of syndecan engagement. This suggests that cells have evolved both primary and secondary systems for regulating the small GTPases, an interesting idea that will require further investigation in motile cells.


Roles of the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 in cell behavior.

Otey C, Goicoechea S, Garcia-Mata R - F1000 Biol Rep (2009)

Rac GTPases have a variety of roles. (a) Recent advances have shed new light on the upstream control of GTPases via adhesion receptors (integrins and syndecans), and on the pathways that localize active Rac to the membrane via vesicle trafficking. These are illustrated in a migrating fibroblast. (b) In adherent epithelial cells, signaling via Rac GTPases impacts on the localization of beta-catenin from the cell-cell junctions to the nucleus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2920686&req=5

fig-002: Rac GTPases have a variety of roles. (a) Recent advances have shed new light on the upstream control of GTPases via adhesion receptors (integrins and syndecans), and on the pathways that localize active Rac to the membrane via vesicle trafficking. These are illustrated in a migrating fibroblast. (b) In adherent epithelial cells, signaling via Rac GTPases impacts on the localization of beta-catenin from the cell-cell junctions to the nucleus.
Mentions: Important advances have also been made in understanding how signals initiated from outside of the cell can be transmitted through the plasma membrane to result in activation or inhibition of small GTPases (Figure 1). Almost ten years ago, it was shown that engagement of transmembrane integrin receptors results in a transient inhibition of RhoA [4]. More recently, an interesting study by Bass et al. [5] explored a mechanism that permits cross-talk between two different classes of adhesion receptors: integrins and syndecans (Figure 2a). This paper showed that the Rho inhibitor p190RhoGAP is phosphorylated as a consequence of integrin engagement (specifically, the integrin α5β 1), and then targeted to the membrane downstream of syndecan engagement. This suggests that cells have evolved both primary and secondary systems for regulating the small GTPases, an interesting idea that will require further investigation in motile cells.

Bottom Line: The Rho-family GTPases are proving to have a variety of biological functions apart from their well known effects on the cytoskeleton.Recent work indicates their involvement in signaling between the adhesion receptors integrin and syndecan, effects on the recruitment of beta-catenin to the nucleus, and potential roles in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 5320 MBRB, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Carol_Otey@med.unc.edu

ABSTRACT
The Rho-family GTPases are proving to have a variety of biological functions apart from their well known effects on the cytoskeleton. Recent work indicates their involvement in signaling between the adhesion receptors integrin and syndecan, effects on the recruitment of beta-catenin to the nucleus, and potential roles in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus