Limits...
Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, Gobin J, Escobar-Briones E, Cruz-Motta JJ, Weil E, Cortés J, Bastidas AC, Robertson R, Zapata F, Martín A, Castillo J, Kazandjian A, Ortiz M - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups.Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data.Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela. pmilos@usb.ve

ABSTRACT
This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different taxa.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial distribution of sites (small dots) and number of species recorded (squares) in the Caribbean.Based in data contained in the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database. Taxa included in the OBIS database were: bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, macroalgae, angiosperms, sponges, cnidarians, gnathostomulids, nematodes, kinorynches, sipunculans, mollusks, annelids, pogonophorans, arthropods, brachiopods, chaetognaths, echinoderms, tunicates, lancelets, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2914069&req=5

pone-0011916-g008: Spatial distribution of sites (small dots) and number of species recorded (squares) in the Caribbean.Based in data contained in the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database. Taxa included in the OBIS database were: bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, macroalgae, angiosperms, sponges, cnidarians, gnathostomulids, nematodes, kinorynches, sipunculans, mollusks, annelids, pogonophorans, arthropods, brachiopods, chaetognaths, echinoderms, tunicates, lancelets, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals.

Mentions: A major problem with these data on more than 12,000 species is that spatial locations are unknown for many, and thus species distributions cannot be mapped. To visualize marine diversity distribution patterns in the Caribbean, we relied on the OBIS database, which includes about 50% of the species reported here for the Caribbean (Figure 8). This map shows very clearly that biodiversity is concentrated around areas with a long history of research: Cuba, Colombia, Belize, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Tobago.


Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, Gobin J, Escobar-Briones E, Cruz-Motta JJ, Weil E, Cortés J, Bastidas AC, Robertson R, Zapata F, Martín A, Castillo J, Kazandjian A, Ortiz M - PLoS ONE (2010)

Spatial distribution of sites (small dots) and number of species recorded (squares) in the Caribbean.Based in data contained in the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database. Taxa included in the OBIS database were: bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, macroalgae, angiosperms, sponges, cnidarians, gnathostomulids, nematodes, kinorynches, sipunculans, mollusks, annelids, pogonophorans, arthropods, brachiopods, chaetognaths, echinoderms, tunicates, lancelets, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2914069&req=5

pone-0011916-g008: Spatial distribution of sites (small dots) and number of species recorded (squares) in the Caribbean.Based in data contained in the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database. Taxa included in the OBIS database were: bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, macroalgae, angiosperms, sponges, cnidarians, gnathostomulids, nematodes, kinorynches, sipunculans, mollusks, annelids, pogonophorans, arthropods, brachiopods, chaetognaths, echinoderms, tunicates, lancelets, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals.
Mentions: A major problem with these data on more than 12,000 species is that spatial locations are unknown for many, and thus species distributions cannot be mapped. To visualize marine diversity distribution patterns in the Caribbean, we relied on the OBIS database, which includes about 50% of the species reported here for the Caribbean (Figure 8). This map shows very clearly that biodiversity is concentrated around areas with a long history of research: Cuba, Colombia, Belize, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Tobago.

Bottom Line: Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups.Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data.Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela. pmilos@usb.ve

ABSTRACT
This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different taxa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus