Limits...
Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research.Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan. fujikura@jamstec.go.jp

ABSTRACT
To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

Show MeSH
Supergroups of eukaryotes based on molecular data, after six supergroups of eukaryotes [36].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2914005&req=5

pone-0011836-g007: Supergroups of eukaryotes based on molecular data, after six supergroups of eukaryotes [36].

Mentions: Taxa containing many conspicuous, larger species have a tendency to be well known taxonomically and ecologically. On the other hand, many taxa of which our knowledge is only of elementary status (State of Knowledge 1) are recognized to occur in Japanese waters (Table S3). Those less well known taxa include the Acanthocephala, Amoebozoa, Apicomplexa, Cycliophora, Heliozoa, Oomycota, Opalozoa, and Percolozoa. Except for the Acanthocephala, the remaining taxa predominantly contain small species. Difficulties in sample collection and morphological identification due to the organisms being so small, as well as the lack of taxonomic expertise in Japan (and indeed around the world), are the major reasons for our lack of knowledge about these taxa. To solve the problems arising from difficulties in identification based on morphology, modern molecular and microscopic techniques can be a useful tool. Recently, Eukarya were indicated to be classifiable into six major supergroups based on their molecular phylogeny [35], [36] (Figure 7). Amoebozoa is one of the supergroups, although in the case of Heliozoa, it is as yet unclear to which group it belongs. Each supergroup contains many small species, commonly called protists. Small species, including these protists, seem to exhibit a much higher species diversity than large species [36]. Thus, to understand diversity and evolution in the Eukarya, it is important to gather more taxonomic and systematic information on taxa containing many small species.


Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama Y - PLoS ONE (2010)

Supergroups of eukaryotes based on molecular data, after six supergroups of eukaryotes [36].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2914005&req=5

pone-0011836-g007: Supergroups of eukaryotes based on molecular data, after six supergroups of eukaryotes [36].
Mentions: Taxa containing many conspicuous, larger species have a tendency to be well known taxonomically and ecologically. On the other hand, many taxa of which our knowledge is only of elementary status (State of Knowledge 1) are recognized to occur in Japanese waters (Table S3). Those less well known taxa include the Acanthocephala, Amoebozoa, Apicomplexa, Cycliophora, Heliozoa, Oomycota, Opalozoa, and Percolozoa. Except for the Acanthocephala, the remaining taxa predominantly contain small species. Difficulties in sample collection and morphological identification due to the organisms being so small, as well as the lack of taxonomic expertise in Japan (and indeed around the world), are the major reasons for our lack of knowledge about these taxa. To solve the problems arising from difficulties in identification based on morphology, modern molecular and microscopic techniques can be a useful tool. Recently, Eukarya were indicated to be classifiable into six major supergroups based on their molecular phylogeny [35], [36] (Figure 7). Amoebozoa is one of the supergroups, although in the case of Heliozoa, it is as yet unclear to which group it belongs. Each supergroup contains many small species, commonly called protists. Small species, including these protists, seem to exhibit a much higher species diversity than large species [36]. Thus, to understand diversity and evolution in the Eukarya, it is important to gather more taxonomic and systematic information on taxa containing many small species.

Bottom Line: We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research.Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan. fujikura@jamstec.go.jp

ABSTRACT
To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

Show MeSH