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Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes.

Polak J, Jarosz-Wilkołazka A - Microb. Cell Fact. (2010)

Bottom Line: An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor.Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium.This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, Lublin, Poland. jpolak@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

ABSTRACT

Background: Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes.

Results: An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation.

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Conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (AHBS) by immobilized fungal biomass. AHBS is oxidized to the phenoxy radicals and/or quinones, which can coupled non-enzymatically to coloured phenoxazinone compound [7].
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Figure 6: Conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (AHBS) by immobilized fungal biomass. AHBS is oxidized to the phenoxy radicals and/or quinones, which can coupled non-enzymatically to coloured phenoxazinone compound [7].

Mentions: This work is a preliminary attempt to estimate the capability of white rot fungi to be used in dye synthesis (Figure 6). Seventeen different precursors were tested as substrates for transformation by actively growing fungal biomass. Transformation of the selected precursors into intensive and non-toxic products was studied in liquid culture. The use of the fungi resulted in stable products lasting for a long time without specific stabilization. Further advantages included the simplicity of the process and the use of oxygen as a "clean oxidant". Further applicability of the fungi in the synthesis of new, coloured molecules is currently being investigated by our group. All the promising coloured products obtained in those investigations will be tested for their application as textile dyes as some preliminary results have already demonstrated that these products have valuable dyeing properties.


Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes.

Polak J, Jarosz-Wilkołazka A - Microb. Cell Fact. (2010)

Conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (AHBS) by immobilized fungal biomass. AHBS is oxidized to the phenoxy radicals and/or quinones, which can coupled non-enzymatically to coloured phenoxazinone compound [7].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913955&req=5

Figure 6: Conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (AHBS) by immobilized fungal biomass. AHBS is oxidized to the phenoxy radicals and/or quinones, which can coupled non-enzymatically to coloured phenoxazinone compound [7].
Mentions: This work is a preliminary attempt to estimate the capability of white rot fungi to be used in dye synthesis (Figure 6). Seventeen different precursors were tested as substrates for transformation by actively growing fungal biomass. Transformation of the selected precursors into intensive and non-toxic products was studied in liquid culture. The use of the fungi resulted in stable products lasting for a long time without specific stabilization. Further advantages included the simplicity of the process and the use of oxygen as a "clean oxidant". Further applicability of the fungi in the synthesis of new, coloured molecules is currently being investigated by our group. All the promising coloured products obtained in those investigations will be tested for their application as textile dyes as some preliminary results have already demonstrated that these products have valuable dyeing properties.

Bottom Line: An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor.Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium.This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, Lublin, Poland. jpolak@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

ABSTRACT

Background: Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes.

Results: An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus