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Analysis of horse myostatin gene and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in breeds of different morphological types.

Dall'Olio S, Fontanesi L, Nanni Costa L, Tassinari M, Minieri L, Falaschini A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Bottom Line: Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass.Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2.The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DIPROVAL, Sezione di Allevamenti Zootecnici, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bologna, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

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Horses of extreme and opposite morphological types:(a) Rapid Heavy Draft (brachymorphic type or heavy) and (b) Italian Trotter (dolichomorphic type or light).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Horses of extreme and opposite morphological types:(a) Rapid Heavy Draft (brachymorphic type or heavy) and (b) Italian Trotter (dolichomorphic type or light).

Mentions: Different horse breeds present a variety of morphological phenotypes that have been used to group breeds into a few classes. However, no system provides a robust classification in which each breed could have an unequivocal assignment. Based on size traits and build, horse breeds are categorized in draught (or heavy), light, and pony (or animals that mature at less than 148 cm high, usually used as riding school and children's mounts) [25]. Considering skeletal structure, proportions, zoometrical indices, length, and volume of muscling, that, in turn, reflect the selective goals and uses of the horse breeds, they are categorized in brachymorphic, mesomorphic, dolichomorphic, and intermediate types (such as meso-dolichomorphic) [26]. Brachymorphic horses (corresponding to draught horses), traditionally referred to as cold-blooded horses in relation to their quiet and calm temperament, are tall in stature, heavy boned, and extremely muscular with short and thick muscles and slow twitch oxidative fibers for slow contraction. They most likely develop strength and power, and their conformation is well suited for pulling carriage, draught power and meat production. Dolichomorphic horses (corresponding to light horses) are characterized by longer bodies and long and thin muscles mainly constituted by fast twitch glycolytic fibers. They are selected for sport purposes, fast running, and high speeds. Examples of Italian breeds representative of these two extreme phenotypes are reported in Figure 1. Mesomorphic type is characterized by a lighter physical structure than brachymorphic but still powerful and compact with massive muscling. This group also includes some breeds with draft-type qualities and classified as ponies based on their withers height (such as Bardigiano and Haflinger breeds). The mesomorphic horses are usually used for pleasure and riding. In addition, several breeds (like local breeds with influence of Oriental, Thoroughbred, and Iberian halfbreed and descendents) have characteristics of both mesomorphic and dolichomorphic types (referred to as meso-dolichomorphic) [26].


Analysis of horse myostatin gene and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in breeds of different morphological types.

Dall'Olio S, Fontanesi L, Nanni Costa L, Tassinari M, Minieri L, Falaschini A - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Horses of extreme and opposite morphological types:(a) Rapid Heavy Draft (brachymorphic type or heavy) and (b) Italian Trotter (dolichomorphic type or light).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913906&req=5

fig1: Horses of extreme and opposite morphological types:(a) Rapid Heavy Draft (brachymorphic type or heavy) and (b) Italian Trotter (dolichomorphic type or light).
Mentions: Different horse breeds present a variety of morphological phenotypes that have been used to group breeds into a few classes. However, no system provides a robust classification in which each breed could have an unequivocal assignment. Based on size traits and build, horse breeds are categorized in draught (or heavy), light, and pony (or animals that mature at less than 148 cm high, usually used as riding school and children's mounts) [25]. Considering skeletal structure, proportions, zoometrical indices, length, and volume of muscling, that, in turn, reflect the selective goals and uses of the horse breeds, they are categorized in brachymorphic, mesomorphic, dolichomorphic, and intermediate types (such as meso-dolichomorphic) [26]. Brachymorphic horses (corresponding to draught horses), traditionally referred to as cold-blooded horses in relation to their quiet and calm temperament, are tall in stature, heavy boned, and extremely muscular with short and thick muscles and slow twitch oxidative fibers for slow contraction. They most likely develop strength and power, and their conformation is well suited for pulling carriage, draught power and meat production. Dolichomorphic horses (corresponding to light horses) are characterized by longer bodies and long and thin muscles mainly constituted by fast twitch glycolytic fibers. They are selected for sport purposes, fast running, and high speeds. Examples of Italian breeds representative of these two extreme phenotypes are reported in Figure 1. Mesomorphic type is characterized by a lighter physical structure than brachymorphic but still powerful and compact with massive muscling. This group also includes some breeds with draft-type qualities and classified as ponies based on their withers height (such as Bardigiano and Haflinger breeds). The mesomorphic horses are usually used for pleasure and riding. In addition, several breeds (like local breeds with influence of Oriental, Thoroughbred, and Iberian halfbreed and descendents) have characteristics of both mesomorphic and dolichomorphic types (referred to as meso-dolichomorphic) [26].

Bottom Line: Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass.Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2.The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DIPROVAL, Sezione di Allevamenti Zootecnici, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bologna, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

Show MeSH