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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, Beta, and gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues.

Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Das KP, Lau CS - PPAR Res (2010)

Bottom Line: Adult and fetal mean expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart.PPARalpha protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal.PPARbeta protein in adrenal and PPARgamma in kidney decreased with fetal age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Assessment Division, Developmental Toxicology Branch, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, (MD-67), Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.

ABSTRACT
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examines expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA and protein in human fetal tissues. With increasing fetal age, mRNA expression of PPARalpha and beta increased in liver, but PPARbeta decreased in heart and intestine, and PPARgamma decreased in adrenal. Adult and fetal mean expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart. PPARalpha and beta mRNA in kidney and spleen, and PPARgamma mRNA in lung and adrenal were lower in fetal versus adult. PPARgamma in liver and PPARbeta mRNA in thymus were higher in fetal versus adult. PPARalpha protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal. PPARbeta protein in adrenal and PPARgamma in kidney decreased with fetal age. This study provides new information on expression of PPAR subtypes during human development and will be important in evaluating the potential for the developing human to respond to PPAR environmental or pharmaceutical agonists.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Thymus. (a) The expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA is shown across the fetal age range.  Log plot of mean ± SEM Ct is normalized to β-2-microglobulin (B2M).  (b) The fetal expression of PPARα, β, and γ is shown relative to expression in adult thymus.  Each symbol represents the mean Ct value of 2 replicates for each fetal (open circles) sample and adult (filled circles) individual replicates are shown (overall mean for each group is shown as a horizontal line).  (c)  PPARα, β, and γ protein expression is shown across the fetal age range.  Western blot density is normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).  Up arrowhead indicates PPARα, and down arrowhead PPARβ, and diamond PPARγ.  If only one sample was available for a particular age, then an error term could not be calculated and no SEM bar is shown.  Regression analysis evaluated change with age. Dashed lines in graphs of C are the 95% confidence interval.
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fig9: Thymus. (a) The expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA is shown across the fetal age range. Log plot of mean ± SEM Ct is normalized to β-2-microglobulin (B2M). (b) The fetal expression of PPARα, β, and γ is shown relative to expression in adult thymus. Each symbol represents the mean Ct value of 2 replicates for each fetal (open circles) sample and adult (filled circles) individual replicates are shown (overall mean for each group is shown as a horizontal line). (c) PPARα, β, and γ protein expression is shown across the fetal age range. Western blot density is normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Up arrowhead indicates PPARα, and down arrowhead PPARβ, and diamond PPARγ. If only one sample was available for a particular age, then an error term could not be calculated and no SEM bar is shown. Regression analysis evaluated change with age. Dashed lines in graphs of C are the 95% confidence interval.

Mentions: PPAR mRNA expression did not change with age (Figure 9(a), 11 fetuses, ED74–120). PPARγ mRNA expression was higher than PPARα or β (P < .001), and that of PPARβ was higher than PPARα (P < .01). β2M mRNA expression was higher than PPAR (mean Ct ± SEM Ct: β2M = 23.1 ± 0.4, PPARα = 31.3 ± 0.3, PPARβ = 30.0 ± 0.1, and PPARγ = 27.5 ± 0.3). PPARβ fetal mRNA expression was higher than in the adult (P < .05, Figure 9(b)). PPAR protein expression did not change with fetal age (Figure 9(c); 5 fetuses, ED101–120).


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, Beta, and gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues.

Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Das KP, Lau CS - PPAR Res (2010)

Thymus. (a) The expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA is shown across the fetal age range.  Log plot of mean ± SEM Ct is normalized to β-2-microglobulin (B2M).  (b) The fetal expression of PPARα, β, and γ is shown relative to expression in adult thymus.  Each symbol represents the mean Ct value of 2 replicates for each fetal (open circles) sample and adult (filled circles) individual replicates are shown (overall mean for each group is shown as a horizontal line).  (c)  PPARα, β, and γ protein expression is shown across the fetal age range.  Western blot density is normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).  Up arrowhead indicates PPARα, and down arrowhead PPARβ, and diamond PPARγ.  If only one sample was available for a particular age, then an error term could not be calculated and no SEM bar is shown.  Regression analysis evaluated change with age. Dashed lines in graphs of C are the 95% confidence interval.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913814&req=5

fig9: Thymus. (a) The expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA is shown across the fetal age range. Log plot of mean ± SEM Ct is normalized to β-2-microglobulin (B2M). (b) The fetal expression of PPARα, β, and γ is shown relative to expression in adult thymus. Each symbol represents the mean Ct value of 2 replicates for each fetal (open circles) sample and adult (filled circles) individual replicates are shown (overall mean for each group is shown as a horizontal line). (c) PPARα, β, and γ protein expression is shown across the fetal age range. Western blot density is normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Up arrowhead indicates PPARα, and down arrowhead PPARβ, and diamond PPARγ. If only one sample was available for a particular age, then an error term could not be calculated and no SEM bar is shown. Regression analysis evaluated change with age. Dashed lines in graphs of C are the 95% confidence interval.
Mentions: PPAR mRNA expression did not change with age (Figure 9(a), 11 fetuses, ED74–120). PPARγ mRNA expression was higher than PPARα or β (P < .001), and that of PPARβ was higher than PPARα (P < .01). β2M mRNA expression was higher than PPAR (mean Ct ± SEM Ct: β2M = 23.1 ± 0.4, PPARα = 31.3 ± 0.3, PPARβ = 30.0 ± 0.1, and PPARγ = 27.5 ± 0.3). PPARβ fetal mRNA expression was higher than in the adult (P < .05, Figure 9(b)). PPAR protein expression did not change with fetal age (Figure 9(c); 5 fetuses, ED101–120).

Bottom Line: Adult and fetal mean expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart.PPARalpha protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal.PPARbeta protein in adrenal and PPARgamma in kidney decreased with fetal age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Assessment Division, Developmental Toxicology Branch, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, (MD-67), Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.

ABSTRACT
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examines expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA and protein in human fetal tissues. With increasing fetal age, mRNA expression of PPARalpha and beta increased in liver, but PPARbeta decreased in heart and intestine, and PPARgamma decreased in adrenal. Adult and fetal mean expression of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart. PPARalpha and beta mRNA in kidney and spleen, and PPARgamma mRNA in lung and adrenal were lower in fetal versus adult. PPARgamma in liver and PPARbeta mRNA in thymus were higher in fetal versus adult. PPARalpha protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal. PPARbeta protein in adrenal and PPARgamma in kidney decreased with fetal age. This study provides new information on expression of PPAR subtypes during human development and will be important in evaluating the potential for the developing human to respond to PPAR environmental or pharmaceutical agonists.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus