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Contribution of gut bacteria to liver pathobiology.

Son G, Kremer M, Hines IN - Gastroenterol Res Pract (2010)

Bottom Line: Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease.The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail.The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

ABSTRACT
Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease. The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestinal venous outflow, the liver represents the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens and is equipped with a broad array of immune cells (i.e., macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells) to accomplish this function. In the setting of tissue injury, whereby the liver is otherwise damaged (e.g., viral infection, toxin exposure, ischemic tissue damage, etc.), these same immune cell populations and their interactions with the infiltrating gut bacteria likely contribute to and promote these pathologies. The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology. Defining these connections will likely provide new targets for therapy or prevention of a wide variety of acute and chronic liver pathologies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagramatic representation of the liver sinusoid.  HA; hepatic artery.  BD; bile duct.  PV; portal vein.  DC; dendritic cell.  KC; Kupffer cell.  NKT; natural killer T cell.  T; T cell.  NK; natural killer cell.
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fig1: Diagramatic representation of the liver sinusoid. HA; hepatic artery. BD; bile duct. PV; portal vein. DC; dendritic cell. KC; Kupffer cell. NKT; natural killer T cell. T; T cell. NK; natural killer cell.

Mentions: In summary, and as is shown in Figure 1, the liver provides residence to a large and heterogeneous population of immune cells, each with specific functions of protection, tolerance, and/or inflammation. It is this third aspect, during inflammatory responses or chronic injury, where the function of hepatic immune cells is perhaps most interesting and extensively studied. And of even greater interest is the potential impact which gut-derived factors may have on this process. As noted earlier, the liver is a unique position where its normal function to sample, metabolize, synthesize, and/or degrade both absorbed and circulating products also places it in potential direct contact gut-derived bacteria and bacterial antigens. And previous studies would suggest that a connection exists as either small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or infection with helicobacter alone contributed to hepatic pathology including increased serum alanine aminotransferase release and inflammatory cell recruitment [57–59]. Likewise, experimental colitis models in rodents and inflammatory bowel disease in patients were associated with periportal inflammation similar to that seen in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, respectively, suggesting that gut-derived factors likely activate inflammatory processes within the liver [60, 61]. The following sections will highlight the current knowledge regarding the influence of gut-derived factors on hepatic biology and pathobiology, focusing on several important mechanisms of liver injury.


Contribution of gut bacteria to liver pathobiology.

Son G, Kremer M, Hines IN - Gastroenterol Res Pract (2010)

Diagramatic representation of the liver sinusoid.  HA; hepatic artery.  BD; bile duct.  PV; portal vein.  DC; dendritic cell.  KC; Kupffer cell.  NKT; natural killer T cell.  T; T cell.  NK; natural killer cell.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913801&req=5

fig1: Diagramatic representation of the liver sinusoid. HA; hepatic artery. BD; bile duct. PV; portal vein. DC; dendritic cell. KC; Kupffer cell. NKT; natural killer T cell. T; T cell. NK; natural killer cell.
Mentions: In summary, and as is shown in Figure 1, the liver provides residence to a large and heterogeneous population of immune cells, each with specific functions of protection, tolerance, and/or inflammation. It is this third aspect, during inflammatory responses or chronic injury, where the function of hepatic immune cells is perhaps most interesting and extensively studied. And of even greater interest is the potential impact which gut-derived factors may have on this process. As noted earlier, the liver is a unique position where its normal function to sample, metabolize, synthesize, and/or degrade both absorbed and circulating products also places it in potential direct contact gut-derived bacteria and bacterial antigens. And previous studies would suggest that a connection exists as either small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or infection with helicobacter alone contributed to hepatic pathology including increased serum alanine aminotransferase release and inflammatory cell recruitment [57–59]. Likewise, experimental colitis models in rodents and inflammatory bowel disease in patients were associated with periportal inflammation similar to that seen in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, respectively, suggesting that gut-derived factors likely activate inflammatory processes within the liver [60, 61]. The following sections will highlight the current knowledge regarding the influence of gut-derived factors on hepatic biology and pathobiology, focusing on several important mechanisms of liver injury.

Bottom Line: Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease.The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail.The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

ABSTRACT
Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease. The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestinal venous outflow, the liver represents the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens and is equipped with a broad array of immune cells (i.e., macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells) to accomplish this function. In the setting of tissue injury, whereby the liver is otherwise damaged (e.g., viral infection, toxin exposure, ischemic tissue damage, etc.), these same immune cell populations and their interactions with the infiltrating gut bacteria likely contribute to and promote these pathologies. The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology. Defining these connections will likely provide new targets for therapy or prevention of a wide variety of acute and chronic liver pathologies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus