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Electrodiagnostic examination of the tibial nerve in clinically normal ferrets.

Bianchi E, Callegari D, Ravera M, Dondi M - Vet Med Int (2010)

Bottom Line: The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 +/- 0.65 ms and 1.92 +/- 0.17.Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 +/- 0.03 ms.These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Department, University of Parma, Via del Taglio 10, 43126 Parma, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 +/- 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 +/- 2.75 mV, and 13.02 +/- 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 +/- 3.83% and 0.1 +/- 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 +/- 0.65 ms and 1.92 +/- 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 +/- 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Schematic representation of the points of stimulation and recording of the electrodiagnostic tests. Red dot: plantar interosseous muscles. Blue dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the tarsus. Green dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the femoral neck. Orange dot: recording of the CDP at the intervertebral space L4-L5. (b) Image of MNCS of the right sciatic-tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for proximal stimulation (red and white wires) distal stimulation (blue and black wires), and recording (white and black wires). The single red and white wire whose needle is inserted between distal stimulation and recording is the ground electrode. (c) Image of the CDP test of the right tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for stimulation (blue and black wires) and recording (white and black wires). The red and white wires whose needles are inserted between stimulation and recording are the ground electrode and the electrodes used for the proximal stimulation during MNCS.
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fig1: (a) Schematic representation of the points of stimulation and recording of the electrodiagnostic tests. Red dot: plantar interosseous muscles. Blue dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the tarsus. Green dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the femoral neck. Orange dot: recording of the CDP at the intervertebral space L4-L5. (b) Image of MNCS of the right sciatic-tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for proximal stimulation (red and white wires) distal stimulation (blue and black wires), and recording (white and black wires). The single red and white wire whose needle is inserted between distal stimulation and recording is the ground electrode. (c) Image of the CDP test of the right tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for stimulation (blue and black wires) and recording (white and black wires). The red and white wires whose needles are inserted between stimulation and recording are the ground electrode and the electrodes used for the proximal stimulation during MNCS.

Mentions: All ferrets in the study were sedated with an intramuscular injection of 80 mcg/kg of medetomidine (Domitor; Pfizer). The procedures were performed, before BAEP tests, with the ferrets in lateral recumbency while rectal temperatures were monitored and maintained above 36.5°C by using heating pads. At the end of the tests, sedation was reversed with an intramuscular injection of 400 mcg/kg of atipamezole (Antisedan; Pfizer). Stimulation: The sciatic-tibial nerve was stimulated at the level of the femoral neck (MNCS) and at the tarsus (MNCS, SRNS, F waves, CDP) (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Needle electrodes were used; the cathode was located approximately 1 cm distally to the anode at the femoral neck and at the tarsus for MNCS and SRNS. Four F waves and CDP cathode and anode were inverted. The electrical stimulus applied was a square wave of supramaximal intensity, 0.1 milliseconds of duration, and a frequency of 1 Hz for MNCS and F waves, 2 Hz for SRNS, and 5 Hz for CDP. Recording: The compound muscular action potentials (CMAP) were recorded from the plantar interosseous muscles with the recording needle inserted in the muscle, and the reference needle placed distally in the subcutis of the plantar surface of the hind paw (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Trains of 9 stimuli were delivered to the nerve for SRNS. The F waves elicited by at least 20 stimuli were recorded. The F ratio was calculated in each subject by the formula: F ratio = (F − M − 1)/2M, where F represents the latency of the F wave and M that of the CMAP (also known as M response). This ratio provides a comparative assessment of motor conduction between proximal and distal nerve segments. For CDP, the recording needle electrode was inserted in the subcutis at the intervertebral space L4-L5 and the reference electrode placed subcutaneously 2-3 cm laterally on the controlateral side of the spine (Figures 1(a) and 1(c)). Two series of 250–500 stimulations were averaged for each subject to verify repeatability of the potentials recorded. The ground needle electrode was inserted in the subcutis between stimulation and recording (Figures 1(b) and 1(c)). The tests were performed in all the ferrets using the same electromyographic equipment (Myoquick, Micromed, Mogliano Veneto (TV)—Italy). Filters were set at 20–2000 Hz for SRNS and F waves, 20–5000 Hz for MNCS and 30–2500 Hz for CDP. In each subject only one tibial nerve was evaluated and the total duration of the procedures ranged between 10 and 15 minutes. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the main parameters of each test.


Electrodiagnostic examination of the tibial nerve in clinically normal ferrets.

Bianchi E, Callegari D, Ravera M, Dondi M - Vet Med Int (2010)

(a) Schematic representation of the points of stimulation and recording of the electrodiagnostic tests. Red dot: plantar interosseous muscles. Blue dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the tarsus. Green dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the femoral neck. Orange dot: recording of the CDP at the intervertebral space L4-L5. (b) Image of MNCS of the right sciatic-tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for proximal stimulation (red and white wires) distal stimulation (blue and black wires), and recording (white and black wires). The single red and white wire whose needle is inserted between distal stimulation and recording is the ground electrode. (c) Image of the CDP test of the right tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for stimulation (blue and black wires) and recording (white and black wires). The red and white wires whose needles are inserted between stimulation and recording are the ground electrode and the electrodes used for the proximal stimulation during MNCS.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913798&req=5

fig1: (a) Schematic representation of the points of stimulation and recording of the electrodiagnostic tests. Red dot: plantar interosseous muscles. Blue dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the tarsus. Green dot: stimulation of the sciatic-tibial nerve at the femoral neck. Orange dot: recording of the CDP at the intervertebral space L4-L5. (b) Image of MNCS of the right sciatic-tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for proximal stimulation (red and white wires) distal stimulation (blue and black wires), and recording (white and black wires). The single red and white wire whose needle is inserted between distal stimulation and recording is the ground electrode. (c) Image of the CDP test of the right tibial nerve showing the points of insertion of the needle electrodes used for stimulation (blue and black wires) and recording (white and black wires). The red and white wires whose needles are inserted between stimulation and recording are the ground electrode and the electrodes used for the proximal stimulation during MNCS.
Mentions: All ferrets in the study were sedated with an intramuscular injection of 80 mcg/kg of medetomidine (Domitor; Pfizer). The procedures were performed, before BAEP tests, with the ferrets in lateral recumbency while rectal temperatures were monitored and maintained above 36.5°C by using heating pads. At the end of the tests, sedation was reversed with an intramuscular injection of 400 mcg/kg of atipamezole (Antisedan; Pfizer). Stimulation: The sciatic-tibial nerve was stimulated at the level of the femoral neck (MNCS) and at the tarsus (MNCS, SRNS, F waves, CDP) (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Needle electrodes were used; the cathode was located approximately 1 cm distally to the anode at the femoral neck and at the tarsus for MNCS and SRNS. Four F waves and CDP cathode and anode were inverted. The electrical stimulus applied was a square wave of supramaximal intensity, 0.1 milliseconds of duration, and a frequency of 1 Hz for MNCS and F waves, 2 Hz for SRNS, and 5 Hz for CDP. Recording: The compound muscular action potentials (CMAP) were recorded from the plantar interosseous muscles with the recording needle inserted in the muscle, and the reference needle placed distally in the subcutis of the plantar surface of the hind paw (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Trains of 9 stimuli were delivered to the nerve for SRNS. The F waves elicited by at least 20 stimuli were recorded. The F ratio was calculated in each subject by the formula: F ratio = (F − M − 1)/2M, where F represents the latency of the F wave and M that of the CMAP (also known as M response). This ratio provides a comparative assessment of motor conduction between proximal and distal nerve segments. For CDP, the recording needle electrode was inserted in the subcutis at the intervertebral space L4-L5 and the reference electrode placed subcutaneously 2-3 cm laterally on the controlateral side of the spine (Figures 1(a) and 1(c)). Two series of 250–500 stimulations were averaged for each subject to verify repeatability of the potentials recorded. The ground needle electrode was inserted in the subcutis between stimulation and recording (Figures 1(b) and 1(c)). The tests were performed in all the ferrets using the same electromyographic equipment (Myoquick, Micromed, Mogliano Veneto (TV)—Italy). Filters were set at 20–2000 Hz for SRNS and F waves, 20–5000 Hz for MNCS and 30–2500 Hz for CDP. In each subject only one tibial nerve was evaluated and the total duration of the procedures ranged between 10 and 15 minutes. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the main parameters of each test.

Bottom Line: The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 +/- 0.65 ms and 1.92 +/- 0.17.Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 +/- 0.03 ms.These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Department, University of Parma, Via del Taglio 10, 43126 Parma, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 +/- 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 +/- 2.75 mV, and 13.02 +/- 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 +/- 3.83% and 0.1 +/- 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 +/- 0.65 ms and 1.92 +/- 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 +/- 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus