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Global distribution, public health and clinical impact of the protozoan pathogen cryptosporidium.

Putignani L, Menichella D - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2010)

Bottom Line: Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours).The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems.The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Unit, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, Scientific Institute, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours). The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Geography of worldwide occurrence of human cryptosporidiosis outbreaks and sporadic cases. A color-coded distribution of the main cases of cryptosporidosis reported in the literature during the last decade (1998–2008) for the entire population (adults and children) is here represented. Waterborne and foodborne diseases are represented by red and grey color, respectively. Spreading of the infection due to HIV immunological impairment is represented by green and travel-related disease by pink color. When not applicable the definition of waterborne and foodborne disease, the term community disease has been applied to person-to-person contacts and represented by a pale blue color. For countries characterised by two or three coexisting transmission modes, a double color-filling effect plus thick border lines have been used, consistently with the above reported code. Putignani and Menchella, 2010.
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fig4: Geography of worldwide occurrence of human cryptosporidiosis outbreaks and sporadic cases. A color-coded distribution of the main cases of cryptosporidosis reported in the literature during the last decade (1998–2008) for the entire population (adults and children) is here represented. Waterborne and foodborne diseases are represented by red and grey color, respectively. Spreading of the infection due to HIV immunological impairment is represented by green and travel-related disease by pink color. When not applicable the definition of waterborne and foodborne disease, the term community disease has been applied to person-to-person contacts and represented by a pale blue color. For countries characterised by two or three coexisting transmission modes, a double color-filling effect plus thick border lines have been used, consistently with the above reported code. Putignani and Menchella, 2010.

Mentions: The principal cryptosporidiosis ecosystems, linked to outbreak and sporadic human cases, were geographically mapped worldwide (Figure 4) and origins of infection were categorised as Waterborne (Section 3), Foodborne (Section 4), Travelers' (Section 5), and HIV-related disease (Section 6). Cryptosporidiosis in children was separately approached, according to multivariate and specific exposure factors acting in this life age (Section 7). The set of reviewed data (outbreak and sporadic human cases, environmental and veterinary surveillance reports) was correlated, in each Section, to the geographical setting (continent) and subsetting (country) (Figure 4, Figure 5).


Global distribution, public health and clinical impact of the protozoan pathogen cryptosporidium.

Putignani L, Menichella D - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2010)

Geography of worldwide occurrence of human cryptosporidiosis outbreaks and sporadic cases. A color-coded distribution of the main cases of cryptosporidosis reported in the literature during the last decade (1998–2008) for the entire population (adults and children) is here represented. Waterborne and foodborne diseases are represented by red and grey color, respectively. Spreading of the infection due to HIV immunological impairment is represented by green and travel-related disease by pink color. When not applicable the definition of waterborne and foodborne disease, the term community disease has been applied to person-to-person contacts and represented by a pale blue color. For countries characterised by two or three coexisting transmission modes, a double color-filling effect plus thick border lines have been used, consistently with the above reported code. Putignani and Menchella, 2010.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2913630&req=5

fig4: Geography of worldwide occurrence of human cryptosporidiosis outbreaks and sporadic cases. A color-coded distribution of the main cases of cryptosporidosis reported in the literature during the last decade (1998–2008) for the entire population (adults and children) is here represented. Waterborne and foodborne diseases are represented by red and grey color, respectively. Spreading of the infection due to HIV immunological impairment is represented by green and travel-related disease by pink color. When not applicable the definition of waterborne and foodborne disease, the term community disease has been applied to person-to-person contacts and represented by a pale blue color. For countries characterised by two or three coexisting transmission modes, a double color-filling effect plus thick border lines have been used, consistently with the above reported code. Putignani and Menchella, 2010.
Mentions: The principal cryptosporidiosis ecosystems, linked to outbreak and sporadic human cases, were geographically mapped worldwide (Figure 4) and origins of infection were categorised as Waterborne (Section 3), Foodborne (Section 4), Travelers' (Section 5), and HIV-related disease (Section 6). Cryptosporidiosis in children was separately approached, according to multivariate and specific exposure factors acting in this life age (Section 7). The set of reviewed data (outbreak and sporadic human cases, environmental and veterinary surveillance reports) was correlated, in each Section, to the geographical setting (continent) and subsetting (country) (Figure 4, Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours).The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems.The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microbiology Unit, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, Scientific Institute, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours). The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus