Limits...
Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals.

Garcia-Solache MA, Casadevall A - MBio (2010)

Bottom Line: The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy.According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment.We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Bronx, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT
Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Earth’s mean global temperature during the past 20,000 years (38; Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2010) in relation to human body temperature. The difference between the mean global temperature (black line) and the human body temperature (red line) is ~22°C, but as shown in the inset, the increment in global warming is occurring very rapidly (17 times as fast from 1941 to 2009 AD than from 20,000 to 6,500 years before the present [BP]), making the mammalian-environment gradient smaller. Recent climatic events that have impacted human history are the end of the last glacial period about 12,500 years ago (double asterisks), the medieval warm period (800 to 1300 AD, diamond), the little ice age (1650 to 1850 AD, asterisk), and the current global warming (arrowhead). KYears, Years in thousands.
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f1: Earth’s mean global temperature during the past 20,000 years (38; Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2010) in relation to human body temperature. The difference between the mean global temperature (black line) and the human body temperature (red line) is ~22°C, but as shown in the inset, the increment in global warming is occurring very rapidly (17 times as fast from 1941 to 2009 AD than from 20,000 to 6,500 years before the present [BP]), making the mammalian-environment gradient smaller. Recent climatic events that have impacted human history are the end of the last glacial period about 12,500 years ago (double asterisks), the medieval warm period (800 to 1300 AD, diamond), the little ice age (1650 to 1850 AD, asterisk), and the current global warming (arrowhead). KYears, Years in thousands.

Mentions: For every 1°C gained in body temperature in the range of 30 to 42°C, approximately 6% of the fungal species are excluded as potential pathogens (20). Global warming means narrowing of the thermal gradient between ambient and mammalian temperatures (Fig. 1). The current gradient is approximately 22°C, and consequently, every degree increase in the global average temperature reduces the gradient by about 5%. We hypothesize that with current global warming, the prevalence of fungal diseases will increase by the mechanisms previously discussed. As thermotolerance is more commonly found within the basidiomycetes (20), this group may be the major contributor of new fungal pathogens.


Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals.

Garcia-Solache MA, Casadevall A - MBio (2010)

Earth’s mean global temperature during the past 20,000 years (38; Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2010) in relation to human body temperature. The difference between the mean global temperature (black line) and the human body temperature (red line) is ~22°C, but as shown in the inset, the increment in global warming is occurring very rapidly (17 times as fast from 1941 to 2009 AD than from 20,000 to 6,500 years before the present [BP]), making the mammalian-environment gradient smaller. Recent climatic events that have impacted human history are the end of the last glacial period about 12,500 years ago (double asterisks), the medieval warm period (800 to 1300 AD, diamond), the little ice age (1650 to 1850 AD, asterisk), and the current global warming (arrowhead). KYears, Years in thousands.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2912667&req=5

f1: Earth’s mean global temperature during the past 20,000 years (38; Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2010) in relation to human body temperature. The difference between the mean global temperature (black line) and the human body temperature (red line) is ~22°C, but as shown in the inset, the increment in global warming is occurring very rapidly (17 times as fast from 1941 to 2009 AD than from 20,000 to 6,500 years before the present [BP]), making the mammalian-environment gradient smaller. Recent climatic events that have impacted human history are the end of the last glacial period about 12,500 years ago (double asterisks), the medieval warm period (800 to 1300 AD, diamond), the little ice age (1650 to 1850 AD, asterisk), and the current global warming (arrowhead). KYears, Years in thousands.
Mentions: For every 1°C gained in body temperature in the range of 30 to 42°C, approximately 6% of the fungal species are excluded as potential pathogens (20). Global warming means narrowing of the thermal gradient between ambient and mammalian temperatures (Fig. 1). The current gradient is approximately 22°C, and consequently, every degree increase in the global average temperature reduces the gradient by about 5%. We hypothesize that with current global warming, the prevalence of fungal diseases will increase by the mechanisms previously discussed. As thermotolerance is more commonly found within the basidiomycetes (20), this group may be the major contributor of new fungal pathogens.

Bottom Line: The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy.According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment.We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Bronx, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT
Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus