Limits...
Universal vaccines: shifting to one for many.

Cassone A, Rappuoli R - MBio (2010)

Bottom Line: Human vaccines, with their exquisite antigenic specificity, have greatly helped to eliminate or dramatically abate the incidence of a number of historical and current plagues, from smallpox to bacterial meningitis.During the last influenza pandemic, extraordinary efforts by vaccine producers and health authorities have had little or no influence on disease prevention or mitigation.Recent research demonstrating the possibility of protecting against all influenza A virus types or even phylogenetically distant pathogens with vaccines based on highly conserved peptide or saccharide sequences is changing our paradigm. "Universal vaccine" strategies could be particularly advantageous to address protection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi for which no vaccine is currently available.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Human vaccines, with their exquisite antigenic specificity, have greatly helped to eliminate or dramatically abate the incidence of a number of historical and current plagues, from smallpox to bacterial meningitis. Nonetheless, as new infectious agents emerge and the number of vaccine-preventable diseases increases, the practice and benefits of single-pathogen- or disease-targeted vaccination may be put at risk by constraints of timely production, formulation complexity, and regulatory hurdles. During the last influenza pandemic, extraordinary efforts by vaccine producers and health authorities have had little or no influence on disease prevention or mitigation. Recent research demonstrating the possibility of protecting against all influenza A virus types or even phylogenetically distant pathogens with vaccines based on highly conserved peptide or saccharide sequences is changing our paradigm. "Universal vaccine" strategies could be particularly advantageous to address protection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi for which no vaccine is currently available.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic view of the history, progress, and perspective of universal vaccines and the accompanying technological tools that make that progress feasible.
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f2: Schematic view of the history, progress, and perspective of universal vaccines and the accompanying technological tools that make that progress feasible.

Mentions: Nonetheless, universal vaccines carry some potential limitations and constraints that must be identified and overcome for their rational exploitation. The first and somewhat obvious one is some defocusing of the immune responses and then a decrease in the capacity to eliminate or keep at bay the etiologic agent. Universal sequences may not be immunodominant, raising the issue of how to potentiate the dominance of antigenic determinants without excessive inflammation. The use of potent viral vectors, presentation as virus-like particles, conjugation with highly immunogenic carriers, and formulation with improved adjuvants such as oil-in-water mixtures or PAMP are some of the tools being exploited. All of the above, in particular the use of PAMP either as an antigen or as a carrier, conveys the possibility of raising autoimmune responses through molecular mimicry or even raising immune responses which dampen the host’s capacity to recognize molecular pattern signatures for a first-line antimicrobial defense. Finally, these broadly specific immune responses might strongly affect the human microbiota, causing excessive elimination of innocent bystanders. Thus, a careful dissection of host beneficial immunity from harmful responses is necessary. Nonetheless, we should not be deterred from in-depth exploration of what is common to a defined type, species, or group of microorganisms, even if they are very distantly related, to move ahead our current strategy of vaccination. Figure 2 schematizes the vaccine history and perspective that are leading those working with vaccines from a merely empirical microbiological stage to a future one which promises to use the best of our “-omics” to generate vaccines using single antigens to protect against many diseases caused by genetically related or even very dissimilar pathogens.


Universal vaccines: shifting to one for many.

Cassone A, Rappuoli R - MBio (2010)

Schematic view of the history, progress, and perspective of universal vaccines and the accompanying technological tools that make that progress feasible.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2912660&req=5

f2: Schematic view of the history, progress, and perspective of universal vaccines and the accompanying technological tools that make that progress feasible.
Mentions: Nonetheless, universal vaccines carry some potential limitations and constraints that must be identified and overcome for their rational exploitation. The first and somewhat obvious one is some defocusing of the immune responses and then a decrease in the capacity to eliminate or keep at bay the etiologic agent. Universal sequences may not be immunodominant, raising the issue of how to potentiate the dominance of antigenic determinants without excessive inflammation. The use of potent viral vectors, presentation as virus-like particles, conjugation with highly immunogenic carriers, and formulation with improved adjuvants such as oil-in-water mixtures or PAMP are some of the tools being exploited. All of the above, in particular the use of PAMP either as an antigen or as a carrier, conveys the possibility of raising autoimmune responses through molecular mimicry or even raising immune responses which dampen the host’s capacity to recognize molecular pattern signatures for a first-line antimicrobial defense. Finally, these broadly specific immune responses might strongly affect the human microbiota, causing excessive elimination of innocent bystanders. Thus, a careful dissection of host beneficial immunity from harmful responses is necessary. Nonetheless, we should not be deterred from in-depth exploration of what is common to a defined type, species, or group of microorganisms, even if they are very distantly related, to move ahead our current strategy of vaccination. Figure 2 schematizes the vaccine history and perspective that are leading those working with vaccines from a merely empirical microbiological stage to a future one which promises to use the best of our “-omics” to generate vaccines using single antigens to protect against many diseases caused by genetically related or even very dissimilar pathogens.

Bottom Line: Human vaccines, with their exquisite antigenic specificity, have greatly helped to eliminate or dramatically abate the incidence of a number of historical and current plagues, from smallpox to bacterial meningitis.During the last influenza pandemic, extraordinary efforts by vaccine producers and health authorities have had little or no influence on disease prevention or mitigation.Recent research demonstrating the possibility of protecting against all influenza A virus types or even phylogenetically distant pathogens with vaccines based on highly conserved peptide or saccharide sequences is changing our paradigm. "Universal vaccine" strategies could be particularly advantageous to address protection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi for which no vaccine is currently available.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Human vaccines, with their exquisite antigenic specificity, have greatly helped to eliminate or dramatically abate the incidence of a number of historical and current plagues, from smallpox to bacterial meningitis. Nonetheless, as new infectious agents emerge and the number of vaccine-preventable diseases increases, the practice and benefits of single-pathogen- or disease-targeted vaccination may be put at risk by constraints of timely production, formulation complexity, and regulatory hurdles. During the last influenza pandemic, extraordinary efforts by vaccine producers and health authorities have had little or no influence on disease prevention or mitigation. Recent research demonstrating the possibility of protecting against all influenza A virus types or even phylogenetically distant pathogens with vaccines based on highly conserved peptide or saccharide sequences is changing our paradigm. "Universal vaccine" strategies could be particularly advantageous to address protection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi for which no vaccine is currently available.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus