Limits...
Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants.

Andrade FH, Figueiroa FC, Bersano PR, Bissacot DZ, Rocha NS - Diagn Pathol (2010)

Bottom Line: Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis.The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors.Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University (UNESP) - Botucatu, SP, Brazil. rochanoeme@fmvz.unesp.br

ABSTRACT
Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

great increase in right cranial mammary gland.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2909155&req=5

Figure 1: great increase in right cranial mammary gland.

Mentions: Nine female dogs with mammary gland swelling (Fig. 1) were attended at the UNESP Veterinary Hospital in Botucatu, São Paulo - Brazil, and underwent mastectomy to excise the tumor (Fig. 2). Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the mammary tumor were analyzed by High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC, following the Bissacot and Vassilieff method [16] (1997). Fragments of mammary tumor were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h, and then they were dehydrated in alcohol, diaphanized in xylene and put into paraffin. They were then cut into 3 μm-width fragments and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). For the analysis of tumors it was used the Veterinary [17] and Human [18] classification. Immunohistochemical analysis followed the protocols from the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory from the Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - UNESP - Botucatu. Antigen retrieval was carried out by microwave treatment in a 10 mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0. Tissue sections were incubated with primary monoclonal antibodies against ER (Novocastra - UK), clone LH2, in 1:40 dilution, incubated for 120 min and developed with polymer Novolink (Novocastra, UK). Tumors were considered positive when they presented more than 10% of nuclear marks from marked neoplasic cells. Graduations were set according to the intensity of positive marking as follows: (+) low intensity (++) mild intensity and (+++) high intensity described in previous studies [19].


Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants.

Andrade FH, Figueiroa FC, Bersano PR, Bissacot DZ, Rocha NS - Diagn Pathol (2010)

great increase in right cranial mammary gland.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2909155&req=5

Figure 1: great increase in right cranial mammary gland.
Mentions: Nine female dogs with mammary gland swelling (Fig. 1) were attended at the UNESP Veterinary Hospital in Botucatu, São Paulo - Brazil, and underwent mastectomy to excise the tumor (Fig. 2). Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the mammary tumor were analyzed by High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC, following the Bissacot and Vassilieff method [16] (1997). Fragments of mammary tumor were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h, and then they were dehydrated in alcohol, diaphanized in xylene and put into paraffin. They were then cut into 3 μm-width fragments and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). For the analysis of tumors it was used the Veterinary [17] and Human [18] classification. Immunohistochemical analysis followed the protocols from the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory from the Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - UNESP - Botucatu. Antigen retrieval was carried out by microwave treatment in a 10 mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0. Tissue sections were incubated with primary monoclonal antibodies against ER (Novocastra - UK), clone LH2, in 1:40 dilution, incubated for 120 min and developed with polymer Novolink (Novocastra, UK). Tumors were considered positive when they presented more than 10% of nuclear marks from marked neoplasic cells. Graduations were set according to the intensity of positive marking as follows: (+) low intensity (++) mild intensity and (+++) high intensity described in previous studies [19].

Bottom Line: Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis.The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors.Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University (UNESP) - Botucatu, SP, Brazil. rochanoeme@fmvz.unesp.br

ABSTRACT
Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus