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Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer and its Application for the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Using Serum and Urine Samples.

Ahmed H - Biomark Cancer (2010)

Bottom Line: Combined with the digital rectal examination, the PSA test has been widely used to detect prostate cancer.But, the PSA screening method for early detection of prostate cancer is not reliable due to the high prevalence of false positive and false negative results.This review discusses DNA methylation of several gene promoters during prostate carcinogenesis and evaluates the usefulness of monitoring methylated DNA sequences, such as GSTP1, RASSF1A, RARβ2 and galectin-3, for early detection of prostate cancer in tissue biopsies, serum and urine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Oncology, Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

ABSTRACT
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. However, prostate cancer can be effectively treated and cured, if it is diagnosed in its early stages when the tumor is still confined to the prostate. Combined with the digital rectal examination, the PSA test has been widely used to detect prostate cancer. But, the PSA screening method for early detection of prostate cancer is not reliable due to the high prevalence of false positive and false negative results. Epigenetic alterations including hypermethylation of gene promoters are believed to be the early events in neoplastic progression and thus these methylated genes can serve as biomarkers for the detection of cancer from clinical specimens. This review discusses DNA methylation of several gene promoters during prostate carcinogenesis and evaluates the usefulness of monitoring methylated DNA sequences, such as GSTP1, RASSF1A, RARβ2 and galectin-3, for early detection of prostate cancer in tissue biopsies, serum and urine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methyltransferase transfers methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-CH3) to cytosine yielding S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and 5-methylcytosine.
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f1-bic-2-2010-017: DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methyltransferase transfers methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-CH3) to cytosine yielding S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and 5-methylcytosine.

Mentions: DNA methylation refers to the covalent binding of a methyl group specifically to the carbon-5 position of cytosine residues of the dinucleotide CpG (Fig. 1). This is catalyzed by a family of enzymes, the DNA methyl-transferases (DNMTs). Two types of DNA methylation alterations have been demonstrated in human cancers. The first refers to global hypomethylation in which the genomes of cancer cells show decreased methylation compared to normal cells.18–20 The hypomethylation is primarily due to the loss of methylation in repetitive elements and other non-transcribed regions of the genome. This genome-wide hypomethylation potentially leads to loss of imprinting, chromosomal instability, cellular hyperproliferation, and activation of oncogenes21 such as K-ras and PU.1.22–25


Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer and its Application for the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Using Serum and Urine Samples.

Ahmed H - Biomark Cancer (2010)

DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methyltransferase transfers methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-CH3) to cytosine yielding S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and 5-methylcytosine.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2908742&req=5

f1-bic-2-2010-017: DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methyltransferase transfers methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-CH3) to cytosine yielding S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and 5-methylcytosine.
Mentions: DNA methylation refers to the covalent binding of a methyl group specifically to the carbon-5 position of cytosine residues of the dinucleotide CpG (Fig. 1). This is catalyzed by a family of enzymes, the DNA methyl-transferases (DNMTs). Two types of DNA methylation alterations have been demonstrated in human cancers. The first refers to global hypomethylation in which the genomes of cancer cells show decreased methylation compared to normal cells.18–20 The hypomethylation is primarily due to the loss of methylation in repetitive elements and other non-transcribed regions of the genome. This genome-wide hypomethylation potentially leads to loss of imprinting, chromosomal instability, cellular hyperproliferation, and activation of oncogenes21 such as K-ras and PU.1.22–25

Bottom Line: Combined with the digital rectal examination, the PSA test has been widely used to detect prostate cancer.But, the PSA screening method for early detection of prostate cancer is not reliable due to the high prevalence of false positive and false negative results.This review discusses DNA methylation of several gene promoters during prostate carcinogenesis and evaluates the usefulness of monitoring methylated DNA sequences, such as GSTP1, RASSF1A, RARβ2 and galectin-3, for early detection of prostate cancer in tissue biopsies, serum and urine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Oncology, Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

ABSTRACT
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. However, prostate cancer can be effectively treated and cured, if it is diagnosed in its early stages when the tumor is still confined to the prostate. Combined with the digital rectal examination, the PSA test has been widely used to detect prostate cancer. But, the PSA screening method for early detection of prostate cancer is not reliable due to the high prevalence of false positive and false negative results. Epigenetic alterations including hypermethylation of gene promoters are believed to be the early events in neoplastic progression and thus these methylated genes can serve as biomarkers for the detection of cancer from clinical specimens. This review discusses DNA methylation of several gene promoters during prostate carcinogenesis and evaluates the usefulness of monitoring methylated DNA sequences, such as GSTP1, RASSF1A, RARβ2 and galectin-3, for early detection of prostate cancer in tissue biopsies, serum and urine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus