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Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

Ried K, Sullivan T, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP - BMC Med (2010)

Bottom Line: Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure.Our meta-analysis suggests that dark chocolate is superior to placebo in reducing systolic hypertension or diastolic prehypertension.Flavanol-rich chocolate did not significantly reduce mean blood pressure below 140 mmHg systolic or 80 mmHg diastolic.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of General Practice, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. karin.ried@adelaide.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.

Methods: We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors for blood pressure outcome.

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that dark chocolate is superior to placebo in reducing systolic hypertension or diastolic prehypertension. Flavanol-rich chocolate did not significantly reduce mean blood pressure below 140 mmHg systolic or 80 mmHg diastolic.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Subgroup meta-analysis of the effect of chocolate/cocoa on (A) systolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥ 140 mmHg at baseline) or (B) 'normotensive' subjects (< 140 mmHg at baseline) and on (C) diastolic blood pressure of (pre-)hypertensive subjects (≥ 80 mmHg) or (D) 'normotensive' subjects (< 80 mmHg). See Figure 2 legend for abbreviation definitions.
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Figure 3: Subgroup meta-analysis of the effect of chocolate/cocoa on (A) systolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥ 140 mmHg at baseline) or (B) 'normotensive' subjects (< 140 mmHg at baseline) and on (C) diastolic blood pressure of (pre-)hypertensive subjects (≥ 80 mmHg) or (D) 'normotensive' subjects (< 80 mmHg). See Figure 2 legend for abbreviation definitions.

Mentions: We pooled trial arms with mean baseline SBP in the hypertensive range (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg) and trial arms with mean baseline SBP of < 140 mm Hg. While meta-analysis of the SBP hypertensive subgroup remained significant (SBPhyper: -5.02 [95% CI, -7.99, -2.05] mmHg; P = 0.0009; Figure 3A), meta-analysis of the SBP normotensive subgroup demonstrated no significant difference in blood pressure reduction between the chocolate/cocoa group and the control group (SBPnormo: -1.56 [95% CI, -3.81, 0.68] mmHg, P = 0.17; Figure 3B). Heterogeneity remained high in the hypertensive subgroup, but was reduced in the SBP normotensive subgroup (SBPhyper: I 2 = 90%; SBPnormo: I 2 = 23%).


Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

Ried K, Sullivan T, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP - BMC Med (2010)

Subgroup meta-analysis of the effect of chocolate/cocoa on (A) systolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥ 140 mmHg at baseline) or (B) 'normotensive' subjects (< 140 mmHg at baseline) and on (C) diastolic blood pressure of (pre-)hypertensive subjects (≥ 80 mmHg) or (D) 'normotensive' subjects (< 80 mmHg). See Figure 2 legend for abbreviation definitions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2908554&req=5

Figure 3: Subgroup meta-analysis of the effect of chocolate/cocoa on (A) systolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥ 140 mmHg at baseline) or (B) 'normotensive' subjects (< 140 mmHg at baseline) and on (C) diastolic blood pressure of (pre-)hypertensive subjects (≥ 80 mmHg) or (D) 'normotensive' subjects (< 80 mmHg). See Figure 2 legend for abbreviation definitions.
Mentions: We pooled trial arms with mean baseline SBP in the hypertensive range (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg) and trial arms with mean baseline SBP of < 140 mm Hg. While meta-analysis of the SBP hypertensive subgroup remained significant (SBPhyper: -5.02 [95% CI, -7.99, -2.05] mmHg; P = 0.0009; Figure 3A), meta-analysis of the SBP normotensive subgroup demonstrated no significant difference in blood pressure reduction between the chocolate/cocoa group and the control group (SBPnormo: -1.56 [95% CI, -3.81, 0.68] mmHg, P = 0.17; Figure 3B). Heterogeneity remained high in the hypertensive subgroup, but was reduced in the SBP normotensive subgroup (SBPhyper: I 2 = 90%; SBPnormo: I 2 = 23%).

Bottom Line: Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure.Our meta-analysis suggests that dark chocolate is superior to placebo in reducing systolic hypertension or diastolic prehypertension.Flavanol-rich chocolate did not significantly reduce mean blood pressure below 140 mmHg systolic or 80 mmHg diastolic.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Discipline of General Practice, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. karin.ried@adelaide.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.

Methods: We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors for blood pressure outcome.

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that dark chocolate is superior to placebo in reducing systolic hypertension or diastolic prehypertension. Flavanol-rich chocolate did not significantly reduce mean blood pressure below 140 mmHg systolic or 80 mmHg diastolic.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus