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Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal.

Verkaik MJ, Busscher HJ, Rustema-Abbing M, Slomp AM, Abbas F, van der Mei HC - Clin Oral Investig (2009)

Bottom Line: In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque.Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth).Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P O Box 196, Groningen 9700, AD, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

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The percentage removal due to contact brushing, as averaged for all three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Gray bars represent 2 h adhesion and black bars denote 16-h-old biofilms. Note that no experiments with 16-h-old biofilms could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion. Error bars represent the SD over the data for the three different modes of brushing involved
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Fig3: The percentage removal due to contact brushing, as averaged for all three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Gray bars represent 2 h adhesion and black bars denote 16-h-old biofilms. Note that no experiments with 16-h-old biofilms could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion. Error bars represent the SD over the data for the three different modes of brushing involved

Mentions: In contact brushing, there are some remarkable differences between the biofilm models evaluated. S. mutans biofilms adhere clearly the most weakest, and this is in line with the fact that they are not considered to be initial colonizers of tooth surfaces in vivo and thus have no role in linking the biofilm to the substratum surface [24]. S. oralis and A. naeslundii do belong to the group of initial colonizers [15, 16, 27], and it is of interest to note that on average, their 16-h-old dual-species biofilm adheres the most tenacious (see Fig. 3), even more so than a 16-h-old multi-species biofilm. This is in contrast with the observations on initially adhering bacteria, where multi-species adhesion yields the most tenacious adhesion. Initially, adhering bacteria have not yet had the opportunity to grow and anchor themselves to a substratum through the excretion of extracellular polymeric substance [18], while in addition, they have not been in competition for nutrients with each other, which may lead to the competitive exclusion from the biofilm of some of the initial colonizers. The percentages of Actinomyces in the multi-species and dual-species biofilm are very similar (around 8% for multi-species [2] and around 10% for the dual-species biofilm, as microscopically estimated) and, therefore, differences in Actinomyces prevalence can be excluded as a reason.Fig. 3


Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal.

Verkaik MJ, Busscher HJ, Rustema-Abbing M, Slomp AM, Abbas F, van der Mei HC - Clin Oral Investig (2009)

The percentage removal due to contact brushing, as averaged for all three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Gray bars represent 2 h adhesion and black bars denote 16-h-old biofilms. Note that no experiments with 16-h-old biofilms could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion. Error bars represent the SD over the data for the three different modes of brushing involved
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2908450&req=5

Fig3: The percentage removal due to contact brushing, as averaged for all three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Gray bars represent 2 h adhesion and black bars denote 16-h-old biofilms. Note that no experiments with 16-h-old biofilms could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion. Error bars represent the SD over the data for the three different modes of brushing involved
Mentions: In contact brushing, there are some remarkable differences between the biofilm models evaluated. S. mutans biofilms adhere clearly the most weakest, and this is in line with the fact that they are not considered to be initial colonizers of tooth surfaces in vivo and thus have no role in linking the biofilm to the substratum surface [24]. S. oralis and A. naeslundii do belong to the group of initial colonizers [15, 16, 27], and it is of interest to note that on average, their 16-h-old dual-species biofilm adheres the most tenacious (see Fig. 3), even more so than a 16-h-old multi-species biofilm. This is in contrast with the observations on initially adhering bacteria, where multi-species adhesion yields the most tenacious adhesion. Initially, adhering bacteria have not yet had the opportunity to grow and anchor themselves to a substratum through the excretion of extracellular polymeric substance [18], while in addition, they have not been in competition for nutrients with each other, which may lead to the competitive exclusion from the biofilm of some of the initial colonizers. The percentages of Actinomyces in the multi-species and dual-species biofilm are very similar (around 8% for multi-species [2] and around 10% for the dual-species biofilm, as microscopically estimated) and, therefore, differences in Actinomyces prevalence can be excluded as a reason.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque.Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth).Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P O Box 196, Groningen 9700, AD, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus