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Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal.

Verkaik MJ, Busscher HJ, Rustema-Abbing M, Slomp AM, Abbas F, van der Mei HC - Clin Oral Investig (2009)

Bottom Line: In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque.Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth).Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P O Box 196, Groningen 9700, AD, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

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The percentage removal of 16-h-old biofilms due to non-contact brushing by three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Striped bars represent data for manual brushing, while dotted and black bars are valid for electric rotating and sonic brushes, respectively. Note that no experiments could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion NS. Error bars represent the SD over three experiments, with separately cultured bacteria and differently prepared salivary coatings
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Fig2: The percentage removal of 16-h-old biofilms due to non-contact brushing by three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Striped bars represent data for manual brushing, while dotted and black bars are valid for electric rotating and sonic brushes, respectively. Note that no experiments could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion NS. Error bars represent the SD over three experiments, with separately cultured bacteria and differently prepared salivary coatings

Mentions: Non-contact brushing of 16-h-old biofilms, however, revealed distinct differences in removal between different modes of brushing (see Fig. 2). Clearly, electric rotating and sonic brushes perform much better than manual brushing, while a sonic brush only removed more biofilm than an electric rotating brush in case of multi-species biofilms. Interestingly, A. naeslundii biofilms could not be removed in any significant amount, neither by electric rotating nor by sonic brushing. The non-contact removal of A. naeslundii biofilm is significantly lower than the other biofilm models; whereas, dual-species biofilms are removed significantly more than multi-species.Fig. 2


Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal.

Verkaik MJ, Busscher HJ, Rustema-Abbing M, Slomp AM, Abbas F, van der Mei HC - Clin Oral Investig (2009)

The percentage removal of 16-h-old biofilms due to non-contact brushing by three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Striped bars represent data for manual brushing, while dotted and black bars are valid for electric rotating and sonic brushes, respectively. Note that no experiments could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion NS. Error bars represent the SD over three experiments, with separately cultured bacteria and differently prepared salivary coatings
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2908450&req=5

Fig2: The percentage removal of 16-h-old biofilms due to non-contact brushing by three different modes of brushing and after correcting for handling of the flow chamber. Striped bars represent data for manual brushing, while dotted and black bars are valid for electric rotating and sonic brushes, respectively. Note that no experiments could be done with Streptococcus mutans NS due to their weak adhesion NS. Error bars represent the SD over three experiments, with separately cultured bacteria and differently prepared salivary coatings
Mentions: Non-contact brushing of 16-h-old biofilms, however, revealed distinct differences in removal between different modes of brushing (see Fig. 2). Clearly, electric rotating and sonic brushes perform much better than manual brushing, while a sonic brush only removed more biofilm than an electric rotating brush in case of multi-species biofilms. Interestingly, A. naeslundii biofilms could not be removed in any significant amount, neither by electric rotating nor by sonic brushing. The non-contact removal of A. naeslundii biofilm is significantly lower than the other biofilm models; whereas, dual-species biofilms are removed significantly more than multi-species.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque.Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth).Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P O Box 196, Groningen 9700, AD, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus