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Location, Location, Location: Alterations in the Functional Topography of Face- but not Object- or Place-Related Cortex in Adolescents with Autism.

Scherf KS, Luna B, Minshew N, Behrmann M - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus.Additionally, we mapped category-selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups.Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and matched typically developing (TD) controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category-selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Group differences in profile of activation within target regions of interest (ROI). Group differences in the magnitude of category selectivity were directly evaluated within each of the target ROIs (FFA, OFA, STS, LO, PPA) identified in the typically developing (TD) adolescent group map (A–C) and also in the group map of the high-functioning adolescents with autism (HFA: (D–F)) at a corrected p < 0.05 threshold. Significant differences in beta weights derived from the ANOVA are outlined in red. There were no group differences in selectivity for objects in any of the object-selective ROIs, regardless of how they were defined (by the TD or HFA group). Similarly, in the TD-defined PPA ROIs, the groups were equally selective for places compared to faces. In the HFA-defined PPA ROIs, the HFA group exhibited more place-selectivity than did the TD group, which was related to lower beta values for faces, as opposed to higher beta values for places. The most prominent group differences were evident in the fusiform gyrus and OFA face-related ROIs, as defined by each group. In the right TD-defined FFA and OFA, HFA participants exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. In the HFA-defined right fusiform gyrus, the TD group exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. This set of findings represents a double dissociation such that face-related ROIs in the TD group were more object selective in the HFA group, whereas face-related ROIs in the HFA group were more object selective in the TD group.
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Figure 2: Group differences in profile of activation within target regions of interest (ROI). Group differences in the magnitude of category selectivity were directly evaluated within each of the target ROIs (FFA, OFA, STS, LO, PPA) identified in the typically developing (TD) adolescent group map (A–C) and also in the group map of the high-functioning adolescents with autism (HFA: (D–F)) at a corrected p < 0.05 threshold. Significant differences in beta weights derived from the ANOVA are outlined in red. There were no group differences in selectivity for objects in any of the object-selective ROIs, regardless of how they were defined (by the TD or HFA group). Similarly, in the TD-defined PPA ROIs, the groups were equally selective for places compared to faces. In the HFA-defined PPA ROIs, the HFA group exhibited more place-selectivity than did the TD group, which was related to lower beta values for faces, as opposed to higher beta values for places. The most prominent group differences were evident in the fusiform gyrus and OFA face-related ROIs, as defined by each group. In the right TD-defined FFA and OFA, HFA participants exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. In the HFA-defined right fusiform gyrus, the TD group exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. This set of findings represents a double dissociation such that face-related ROIs in the TD group were more object selective in the HFA group, whereas face-related ROIs in the HFA group were more object selective in the TD group.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the cortical activation profiles for each group, as measured by the difference in relevant beta weights from the separate ROI GLMS contrasting category selectivity across groups within each ROI, in both the TD-defined (Figures 2A–C) and HFA-defined (Figures 2D–F) group level ROIs.


Location, Location, Location: Alterations in the Functional Topography of Face- but not Object- or Place-Related Cortex in Adolescents with Autism.

Scherf KS, Luna B, Minshew N, Behrmann M - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Group differences in profile of activation within target regions of interest (ROI). Group differences in the magnitude of category selectivity were directly evaluated within each of the target ROIs (FFA, OFA, STS, LO, PPA) identified in the typically developing (TD) adolescent group map (A–C) and also in the group map of the high-functioning adolescents with autism (HFA: (D–F)) at a corrected p < 0.05 threshold. Significant differences in beta weights derived from the ANOVA are outlined in red. There were no group differences in selectivity for objects in any of the object-selective ROIs, regardless of how they were defined (by the TD or HFA group). Similarly, in the TD-defined PPA ROIs, the groups were equally selective for places compared to faces. In the HFA-defined PPA ROIs, the HFA group exhibited more place-selectivity than did the TD group, which was related to lower beta values for faces, as opposed to higher beta values for places. The most prominent group differences were evident in the fusiform gyrus and OFA face-related ROIs, as defined by each group. In the right TD-defined FFA and OFA, HFA participants exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. In the HFA-defined right fusiform gyrus, the TD group exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. This set of findings represents a double dissociation such that face-related ROIs in the TD group were more object selective in the HFA group, whereas face-related ROIs in the HFA group were more object selective in the TD group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2904054&req=5

Figure 2: Group differences in profile of activation within target regions of interest (ROI). Group differences in the magnitude of category selectivity were directly evaluated within each of the target ROIs (FFA, OFA, STS, LO, PPA) identified in the typically developing (TD) adolescent group map (A–C) and also in the group map of the high-functioning adolescents with autism (HFA: (D–F)) at a corrected p < 0.05 threshold. Significant differences in beta weights derived from the ANOVA are outlined in red. There were no group differences in selectivity for objects in any of the object-selective ROIs, regardless of how they were defined (by the TD or HFA group). Similarly, in the TD-defined PPA ROIs, the groups were equally selective for places compared to faces. In the HFA-defined PPA ROIs, the HFA group exhibited more place-selectivity than did the TD group, which was related to lower beta values for faces, as opposed to higher beta values for places. The most prominent group differences were evident in the fusiform gyrus and OFA face-related ROIs, as defined by each group. In the right TD-defined FFA and OFA, HFA participants exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. In the HFA-defined right fusiform gyrus, the TD group exhibited object, as opposed to face, selectivity. This set of findings represents a double dissociation such that face-related ROIs in the TD group were more object selective in the HFA group, whereas face-related ROIs in the HFA group were more object selective in the TD group.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the cortical activation profiles for each group, as measured by the difference in relevant beta weights from the separate ROI GLMS contrasting category selectivity across groups within each ROI, in both the TD-defined (Figures 2A–C) and HFA-defined (Figures 2D–F) group level ROIs.

Bottom Line: With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus.Additionally, we mapped category-selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups.Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and matched typically developing (TD) controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category-selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus