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Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza.

Skaik S, Abu-Shaban N, Abu-Shaban N, Barbieri M, Barbieri M, Giani U, Manduca P - BMC Int Health Hum Rights (2010)

Bottom Line: This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management.Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination.We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. paolamanduca@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009.

Methods: Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A), charred (C), burns (B), multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP) (M), were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals.

Results: Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn), in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg) and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn); Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples.

Conclusions: The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphic summary of the metal presence in wounded tissues. A- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. B- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. On the left: A for amputation, B for burned, C for charred, M for multiple piercing burns. Circles- Metals are detected in all the biopsies in a class of injury in amounts above the cut point, below in the Figure. Squares- Metals are detected only in some biopsies of a class of injury in amounts above the cut point. Triangles- Metals are detected all biopsies of a class of injury in amounts below the cut point.
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Figure 1: Graphic summary of the metal presence in wounded tissues. A- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. B- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. On the left: A for amputation, B for burned, C for charred, M for multiple piercing burns. Circles- Metals are detected in all the biopsies in a class of injury in amounts above the cut point, below in the Figure. Squares- Metals are detected only in some biopsies of a class of injury in amounts above the cut point. Triangles- Metals are detected all biopsies of a class of injury in amounts below the cut point.

Mentions: For the most numerous injuries analyzed, (A, B, C) and that from which more than one biopsy was taken in different wounds (M), we derived a graphic description of the distribution of relevant metals (Fig. 1): in Fig. 1A, we show that all biopsies of a class present a characterizing "metal signature", whereby they have equal or more than 2 fold amount of specific metals. This signature varies for each class of injury and points to the specific relationship between class of injury and type of metals delivered by the weapon causing it. In Fig. 1B, using a 10fold amount as limit, is shown that the amount of each metal in the different classes of injuries differs. Together, these Figures describe semi-quantitatively the specific metal signature associated to each kind of injury.


Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza.

Skaik S, Abu-Shaban N, Abu-Shaban N, Barbieri M, Barbieri M, Giani U, Manduca P - BMC Int Health Hum Rights (2010)

Graphic summary of the metal presence in wounded tissues. A- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. B- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. On the left: A for amputation, B for burned, C for charred, M for multiple piercing burns. Circles- Metals are detected in all the biopsies in a class of injury in amounts above the cut point, below in the Figure. Squares- Metals are detected only in some biopsies of a class of injury in amounts above the cut point. Triangles- Metals are detected all biopsies of a class of injury in amounts below the cut point.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2903525&req=5

Figure 1: Graphic summary of the metal presence in wounded tissues. A- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. B- The symbols indicate the detection of metals in amount higher than 2 folds than in control. On the left: A for amputation, B for burned, C for charred, M for multiple piercing burns. Circles- Metals are detected in all the biopsies in a class of injury in amounts above the cut point, below in the Figure. Squares- Metals are detected only in some biopsies of a class of injury in amounts above the cut point. Triangles- Metals are detected all biopsies of a class of injury in amounts below the cut point.
Mentions: For the most numerous injuries analyzed, (A, B, C) and that from which more than one biopsy was taken in different wounds (M), we derived a graphic description of the distribution of relevant metals (Fig. 1): in Fig. 1A, we show that all biopsies of a class present a characterizing "metal signature", whereby they have equal or more than 2 fold amount of specific metals. This signature varies for each class of injury and points to the specific relationship between class of injury and type of metals delivered by the weapon causing it. In Fig. 1B, using a 10fold amount as limit, is shown that the amount of each metal in the different classes of injuries differs. Together, these Figures describe semi-quantitatively the specific metal signature associated to each kind of injury.

Bottom Line: This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management.Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination.We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dept Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. paolamanduca@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009.

Methods: Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A), charred (C), burns (B), multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP) (M), were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals.

Results: Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn), in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg) and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn); Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples.

Conclusions: The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus