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Bone mass and the CAG and GGN androgen receptor polymorphisms in young men.

Guadalupe-Grau A, Rodríguez-González FG, Ponce-González JG, Dorado C, Olmedillas H, Fuentes T, Pérez-Gómez J, Sanchís-Moysi J, Díaz-Chico BN, Calbet JA - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAG(S)+GGN(S) compared with the CAG(L)+GGN(S) men (P<0.05).CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S), GGN(L) men had similar osteocalcin concentration as well as the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied.AR polymorphisms have an influence on BMC and BMD in healthy adult humans, which cannot be explained through effects in osteoblastic activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine whether androgen receptor (AR) CAG (polyglutamine) and GGN (polyglycine) polymorphisms influence bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin and free serum testosterone concentration in young men.

Methodology/principal findings: Whole body, lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD, Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), AR repeat polymorphisms (PCR), osteocalcin and free testosterone (ELISA) were determined in 282 healthy men (28.6+/-7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harboring repeat lengths of < or = 21 or CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG > 21, and GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN < or = 23 or > 23. There was an inverse association between logarithm of CAG and GGN length and Ward's Triangle BMC (r = -0.15 and -0.15, P<0.05, age and height adjusted). No associations between CAG or GGN repeat length and regional BMC or BMD were observed after adjusting for age. Whole body and regional BMC and BMD values were similar in men harboring CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S) or GGN(L) AR repeat polymorphisms. Men harboring the combination CAG(L)+GGN(L) had 6.3 and 4.4% higher lumbar spine BMC and BMD than men with the haplotype CAG(S)+GGN(S) (both P<0.05). Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAG(S)+GGN(S) compared with the CAG(L)+GGN(S) men (P<0.05). CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S), GGN(L) men had similar osteocalcin concentration as well as the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied.

Conclusion: AR polymorphisms have an influence on BMC and BMD in healthy adult humans, which cannot be explained through effects in osteoblastic activity.

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Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral areal density (BMD).Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if harboring repeat lengths of ≤21 and CAG long (CAGL) if harboring repeat lengths of >21. The cutoff point for GGN short (GGNS) was GGN repeat polymorphism ≤23, otherwise subjects were included in the GGN long (GGNL) group. Four haplotypes combinations were defined as: CAGL + GGNL, CAGS + GGNS, CAGS + GGNL, and CAGL + GGNS.
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pone-0011529-g001: Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral areal density (BMD).Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if harboring repeat lengths of ≤21 and CAG long (CAGL) if harboring repeat lengths of >21. The cutoff point for GGN short (GGNS) was GGN repeat polymorphism ≤23, otherwise subjects were included in the GGN long (GGNL) group. Four haplotypes combinations were defined as: CAGL + GGNL, CAGS + GGNS, CAGS + GGNL, and CAGL + GGNS.

Mentions: Whole body BMC and BMD were similar in the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied (Fig. 1). Men harboring the combination CAGL+GGNL had 6.3% higher lumbar spine BMC than men with the haplotype CAGS+GGNS (P<0.05) (Fig. 2). Likewise, men with the haplotype CAGL+GGNL had 4.4 and 4.3% higher lumbar spine BMD than men harboring the combinations CAGS+GGNS and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (both P<0.05) (Fig. 2). Men with the combination CAGS + GGNS had 13.8, 11.7 and 7.2% higher Ward's Triangle BMC than those with the combinations CAGL+GGNL, CAGS+GGNL, and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (all P<0.05) (Fig. 3). Ward's Triangle BMD was 9.8, 7.9 and 6.9% higher in men with CAGS+GGNS compared to CAGL+GGNL, CAGS+GGNL, and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (all P<0.05) (Fig. 3). Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAGS+GGNS compared with the CAGL+GGNS men (P<0.05) (Fig. 3). The mean BMD of the lower extremities was 2.4% higher in the CAGS+GGNS compared with the CAGL+GGNS men (P<0.05) (Fig. 4). All these between-haplotypes differences in regional BMD and BMC remained statistically significant after accounting for height and age as covariates.


Bone mass and the CAG and GGN androgen receptor polymorphisms in young men.

Guadalupe-Grau A, Rodríguez-González FG, Ponce-González JG, Dorado C, Olmedillas H, Fuentes T, Pérez-Gómez J, Sanchís-Moysi J, Díaz-Chico BN, Calbet JA - PLoS ONE (2010)

Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral areal density (BMD).Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if harboring repeat lengths of ≤21 and CAG long (CAGL) if harboring repeat lengths of >21. The cutoff point for GGN short (GGNS) was GGN repeat polymorphism ≤23, otherwise subjects were included in the GGN long (GGNL) group. Four haplotypes combinations were defined as: CAGL + GGNL, CAGS + GGNS, CAGS + GGNL, and CAGL + GGNS.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2902510&req=5

pone-0011529-g001: Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral areal density (BMD).Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if harboring repeat lengths of ≤21 and CAG long (CAGL) if harboring repeat lengths of >21. The cutoff point for GGN short (GGNS) was GGN repeat polymorphism ≤23, otherwise subjects were included in the GGN long (GGNL) group. Four haplotypes combinations were defined as: CAGL + GGNL, CAGS + GGNS, CAGS + GGNL, and CAGL + GGNS.
Mentions: Whole body BMC and BMD were similar in the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied (Fig. 1). Men harboring the combination CAGL+GGNL had 6.3% higher lumbar spine BMC than men with the haplotype CAGS+GGNS (P<0.05) (Fig. 2). Likewise, men with the haplotype CAGL+GGNL had 4.4 and 4.3% higher lumbar spine BMD than men harboring the combinations CAGS+GGNS and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (both P<0.05) (Fig. 2). Men with the combination CAGS + GGNS had 13.8, 11.7 and 7.2% higher Ward's Triangle BMC than those with the combinations CAGL+GGNL, CAGS+GGNL, and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (all P<0.05) (Fig. 3). Ward's Triangle BMD was 9.8, 7.9 and 6.9% higher in men with CAGS+GGNS compared to CAGL+GGNL, CAGS+GGNL, and CAGL+GGNS, respectively (all P<0.05) (Fig. 3). Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAGS+GGNS compared with the CAGL+GGNS men (P<0.05) (Fig. 3). The mean BMD of the lower extremities was 2.4% higher in the CAGS+GGNS compared with the CAGL+GGNS men (P<0.05) (Fig. 4). All these between-haplotypes differences in regional BMD and BMC remained statistically significant after accounting for height and age as covariates.

Bottom Line: Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAG(S)+GGN(S) compared with the CAG(L)+GGN(S) men (P<0.05).CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S), GGN(L) men had similar osteocalcin concentration as well as the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied.AR polymorphisms have an influence on BMC and BMD in healthy adult humans, which cannot be explained through effects in osteoblastic activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine whether androgen receptor (AR) CAG (polyglutamine) and GGN (polyglycine) polymorphisms influence bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin and free serum testosterone concentration in young men.

Methodology/principal findings: Whole body, lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD, Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), AR repeat polymorphisms (PCR), osteocalcin and free testosterone (ELISA) were determined in 282 healthy men (28.6+/-7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harboring repeat lengths of < or = 21 or CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG > 21, and GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN < or = 23 or > 23. There was an inverse association between logarithm of CAG and GGN length and Ward's Triangle BMC (r = -0.15 and -0.15, P<0.05, age and height adjusted). No associations between CAG or GGN repeat length and regional BMC or BMD were observed after adjusting for age. Whole body and regional BMC and BMD values were similar in men harboring CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S) or GGN(L) AR repeat polymorphisms. Men harboring the combination CAG(L)+GGN(L) had 6.3 and 4.4% higher lumbar spine BMC and BMD than men with the haplotype CAG(S)+GGN(S) (both P<0.05). Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAG(S)+GGN(S) compared with the CAG(L)+GGN(S) men (P<0.05). CAG(S), CAG(L), GGN(S), GGN(L) men had similar osteocalcin concentration as well as the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied.

Conclusion: AR polymorphisms have an influence on BMC and BMD in healthy adult humans, which cannot be explained through effects in osteoblastic activity.

Show MeSH