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A team-based approach to warfarin management in long term care: a feasibility study of the MEDeINR electronic decision support system.

Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Campbell G, Stroud JB, Wang L, Dolovich L, Crowther MA, Improving Prescribing in Long Term Care Investigato - BMC Geriatr (2010)

Bottom Line: Overall, the average number of INR tests/30 days decreased from 4.2 to 3.1 (p < 0.0001) per resident after implementation of MEDeINR.Feedback received from LTC clinicians and staff was that the program decreased the work-load, improved confidence in management and decisions, and was generally easy to use.Although LTC homes in our sample had TTR's that were relatively high prior to the intervention, the MEDeINR program represented a useful tool to promote optimal TTR, decrease INR venipunctures, streamline processes, and increase nurse and physician confidence around warfarin management.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8N 3Z5, Canada. papaioannou@hhsc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies in long-term care (LTC) have demonstrated that warfarin management is suboptimal with preventable adverse events often occurring as a result of poor International Normalized Ratio (INR) control. To assist LTC teams with the challenge of maintaining residents on warfarin in the therapeutic range (INR of 2.0 to 3.0), we developed an electronic decision support system that was based on a validated algorithm for warfarin dosing. We evaluated the MEDeINR system in a pre-post implementation design by examining the impact on INR control, testing frequency, and experiences of staff in using the system.

Methods: For this feasibility study, we piloted the MEDeINR system in six LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. All128 residents (without a prosthetic valve) who were taking warfarin were included. Three-months of INR data prior to MEDeINR was collected via a retrospective chart audit, and three-months of INR data after implementation of MEDeINR was captured in the central computer database. The primary outcomes compared in a pre-post design were time in therapeutic range (TTR) and time in sub/supratherapeutic ranges based on all INR measures for every resident on warfarin. Secondary measures included the number of monthly INR tests/resident and survey/focus-group feedback from the LTC teams.

Results: LTC homes in our study had TTR's that were higher than past reports prior to the intervention. Overall, the TTR increased during the MEDeINR phase (65 to 69%), but was only significantly increased for one home (62% to 71%, p < 0.05). The percentage of time in supratherapeutic decreased from 14% to 11%, p = 0.08); there was little change for the subtherapeutic range (21% to 20%, p = 0.66). Overall, the average number of INR tests/30 days decreased from 4.2 to 3.1 (p < 0.0001) per resident after implementation of MEDeINR. Feedback received from LTC clinicians and staff was that the program decreased the work-load, improved confidence in management and decisions, and was generally easy to use.

Conclusion: Although LTC homes in our sample had TTR's that were relatively high prior to the intervention, the MEDeINR program represented a useful tool to promote optimal TTR, decrease INR venipunctures, streamline processes, and increase nurse and physician confidence around warfarin management. We have demonstrated that MEDeINR was a practical, usable clinical information system that can be incorporated into the LTC environment.

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Percent of time spent below therapeutic range
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Figure 3: Percent of time spent below therapeutic range

Mentions: A total of 1308 INR values were recorded during the pre-data phase over 9495 resident days. A total of 1213 INR values were recorded over 11557 resident days during the MEDeINR phase. The mean number of days of INR monitoring per patient (difference between first and last INR dates) was 74 days (range 17-101) in the pre-phase and 90 days (range 27-131) in the post-phase. Figures 2 through 4 compare the percentage of time spent in a) therapeutic range b) below range (subtherapeutic) and c) above range (supratherapeutic) for the pre and post implementation periods. Overall, the TTR increased during the MEDeINR phase (65 to 69%, p = 0.14), but was only significantly increased for Centre 1. There was little change in the pre versus post periods for the subtherapeutic range, with the exception of Centre 2 (Figure 3). The percentage of time spent in supratherapeutic range also decreased from 14% to 11% (p = 0.08) overall, and for Centres 1,3,5 and 6 (Figure 4) but was not significant.


A team-based approach to warfarin management in long term care: a feasibility study of the MEDeINR electronic decision support system.

Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Campbell G, Stroud JB, Wang L, Dolovich L, Crowther MA, Improving Prescribing in Long Term Care Investigato - BMC Geriatr (2010)

Percent of time spent below therapeutic range
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2902482&req=5

Figure 3: Percent of time spent below therapeutic range
Mentions: A total of 1308 INR values were recorded during the pre-data phase over 9495 resident days. A total of 1213 INR values were recorded over 11557 resident days during the MEDeINR phase. The mean number of days of INR monitoring per patient (difference between first and last INR dates) was 74 days (range 17-101) in the pre-phase and 90 days (range 27-131) in the post-phase. Figures 2 through 4 compare the percentage of time spent in a) therapeutic range b) below range (subtherapeutic) and c) above range (supratherapeutic) for the pre and post implementation periods. Overall, the TTR increased during the MEDeINR phase (65 to 69%, p = 0.14), but was only significantly increased for Centre 1. There was little change in the pre versus post periods for the subtherapeutic range, with the exception of Centre 2 (Figure 3). The percentage of time spent in supratherapeutic range also decreased from 14% to 11% (p = 0.08) overall, and for Centres 1,3,5 and 6 (Figure 4) but was not significant.

Bottom Line: Overall, the average number of INR tests/30 days decreased from 4.2 to 3.1 (p < 0.0001) per resident after implementation of MEDeINR.Feedback received from LTC clinicians and staff was that the program decreased the work-load, improved confidence in management and decisions, and was generally easy to use.Although LTC homes in our sample had TTR's that were relatively high prior to the intervention, the MEDeINR program represented a useful tool to promote optimal TTR, decrease INR venipunctures, streamline processes, and increase nurse and physician confidence around warfarin management.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8N 3Z5, Canada. papaioannou@hhsc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies in long-term care (LTC) have demonstrated that warfarin management is suboptimal with preventable adverse events often occurring as a result of poor International Normalized Ratio (INR) control. To assist LTC teams with the challenge of maintaining residents on warfarin in the therapeutic range (INR of 2.0 to 3.0), we developed an electronic decision support system that was based on a validated algorithm for warfarin dosing. We evaluated the MEDeINR system in a pre-post implementation design by examining the impact on INR control, testing frequency, and experiences of staff in using the system.

Methods: For this feasibility study, we piloted the MEDeINR system in six LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. All128 residents (without a prosthetic valve) who were taking warfarin were included. Three-months of INR data prior to MEDeINR was collected via a retrospective chart audit, and three-months of INR data after implementation of MEDeINR was captured in the central computer database. The primary outcomes compared in a pre-post design were time in therapeutic range (TTR) and time in sub/supratherapeutic ranges based on all INR measures for every resident on warfarin. Secondary measures included the number of monthly INR tests/resident and survey/focus-group feedback from the LTC teams.

Results: LTC homes in our study had TTR's that were higher than past reports prior to the intervention. Overall, the TTR increased during the MEDeINR phase (65 to 69%), but was only significantly increased for one home (62% to 71%, p < 0.05). The percentage of time in supratherapeutic decreased from 14% to 11%, p = 0.08); there was little change for the subtherapeutic range (21% to 20%, p = 0.66). Overall, the average number of INR tests/30 days decreased from 4.2 to 3.1 (p < 0.0001) per resident after implementation of MEDeINR. Feedback received from LTC clinicians and staff was that the program decreased the work-load, improved confidence in management and decisions, and was generally easy to use.

Conclusion: Although LTC homes in our sample had TTR's that were relatively high prior to the intervention, the MEDeINR program represented a useful tool to promote optimal TTR, decrease INR venipunctures, streamline processes, and increase nurse and physician confidence around warfarin management. We have demonstrated that MEDeINR was a practical, usable clinical information system that can be incorporated into the LTC environment.

Show MeSH