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Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa.

Nakazato M, Hashimoto K, Schmidt U, Tchanturia K, Campbell IC, Collier DA, Iyo M, Treasure J - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2010)

Bottom Line: Concentrations of serum glutamine were positively associated with markers of the illness severity: a negative correlation was present between serum glutamine concentrations and body mass index (BMI) and lowest BMI and a positive correlation was found between duration of illness and EDEQ.The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors.It does not appear to be directly associated with changes in executive function.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Eating Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. michiko.nakazato@nifty.ne.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Set-shifting is impaired in people with anorexia nervosa (AN), but the underlying physiological and biochemical processes are unclear. Animal studies have established that glutamatergic pathways in the prefrontal cortex play an important role in set-shifting ability. However, it is not yet understood whether levels of serum glutamatergic amino acids are associated with set-shifting performance in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of amino acids related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine, d-serine) are associated with set-shifting ability in people with acute AN and those after recovery.

Methods: Serum concentrations of glutamatergic amino acids were measured in 27 women with current AN (AN group), 18 women recovered from AN (ANRec group) and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC group). Set-shifting was measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Trail Making Task (TMT). Dimensional measures of psychopathology were used, including the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ), the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

Results: Serum glutamine concentrations in the AN group (1,310.2 +/- 265.6 muM, mean +/- SD) were significantly higher (by approximately 20%) than those in the HC group (1,102.9 +/- 152.7 muM, mean +/- SD) (F(2, 70) = 6.3, P = 0.003, 95% CI 61.2 to 353.4). Concentrations of serum glutamine were positively associated with markers of the illness severity: a negative correlation was present between serum glutamine concentrations and body mass index (BMI) and lowest BMI and a positive correlation was found between duration of illness and EDEQ. The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors. In the AN group, there were no correlations between serum glutamine concentrations and set shifting.

Conclusions: Serum concentrations of glutamine may be a biomarker of illness severity in people with AN. It does not appear to be directly associated with changes in executive function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of serum glutamine concentrations and serum glutamate concentrations in the healthy controls (HC), the patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and those recovered from AN (ANRec). Values are mean ± SD; **P < 0.01.
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Figure 1: Comparison of serum glutamine concentrations and serum glutamate concentrations in the healthy controls (HC), the patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and those recovered from AN (ANRec). Values are mean ± SD; **P < 0.01.

Mentions: Table 1 shows the concentrations of amino acids between the three groups. Serum glutamine concentrations in the AN group (n = 27) (1,310.2 ± 265.6 μM, mean ± SD) were significantly higher than those in the HC group (n = 28) (1,102.9 ± 152.7 μM, mean ± SD) (F(2, 70) = 6.3; P = 0.003) (Figure 1). Table 2 shows the results of the post hoc Bonferroni-Dunn test for serum glutamine concentrations. Serum glutamine concentrations were significantly higher in the AN group than in the HC group (P = 0.003; 95% CI 61.2 to 353.4). The effect size for the mean differences in serum glutamine was 0.87, which is a large effect. There were no significant differences in the serum concentrations of the other amino acids (glutamate, glycine, d-serine and l-serine) between the three groups. The effect sizes for these were of a small and medium size: 0.36 for glutamate, 0.56 for glycine, 0.44 for d-serine and 0.31 for l-serine, respectively.


Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa.

Nakazato M, Hashimoto K, Schmidt U, Tchanturia K, Campbell IC, Collier DA, Iyo M, Treasure J - Ann Gen Psychiatry (2010)

Comparison of serum glutamine concentrations and serum glutamate concentrations in the healthy controls (HC), the patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and those recovered from AN (ANRec). Values are mean ± SD; **P < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2902473&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of serum glutamine concentrations and serum glutamate concentrations in the healthy controls (HC), the patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and those recovered from AN (ANRec). Values are mean ± SD; **P < 0.01.
Mentions: Table 1 shows the concentrations of amino acids between the three groups. Serum glutamine concentrations in the AN group (n = 27) (1,310.2 ± 265.6 μM, mean ± SD) were significantly higher than those in the HC group (n = 28) (1,102.9 ± 152.7 μM, mean ± SD) (F(2, 70) = 6.3; P = 0.003) (Figure 1). Table 2 shows the results of the post hoc Bonferroni-Dunn test for serum glutamine concentrations. Serum glutamine concentrations were significantly higher in the AN group than in the HC group (P = 0.003; 95% CI 61.2 to 353.4). The effect size for the mean differences in serum glutamine was 0.87, which is a large effect. There were no significant differences in the serum concentrations of the other amino acids (glutamate, glycine, d-serine and l-serine) between the three groups. The effect sizes for these were of a small and medium size: 0.36 for glutamate, 0.56 for glycine, 0.44 for d-serine and 0.31 for l-serine, respectively.

Bottom Line: Concentrations of serum glutamine were positively associated with markers of the illness severity: a negative correlation was present between serum glutamine concentrations and body mass index (BMI) and lowest BMI and a positive correlation was found between duration of illness and EDEQ.The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors.It does not appear to be directly associated with changes in executive function.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Eating Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. michiko.nakazato@nifty.ne.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Set-shifting is impaired in people with anorexia nervosa (AN), but the underlying physiological and biochemical processes are unclear. Animal studies have established that glutamatergic pathways in the prefrontal cortex play an important role in set-shifting ability. However, it is not yet understood whether levels of serum glutamatergic amino acids are associated with set-shifting performance in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of amino acids related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine, d-serine) are associated with set-shifting ability in people with acute AN and those after recovery.

Methods: Serum concentrations of glutamatergic amino acids were measured in 27 women with current AN (AN group), 18 women recovered from AN (ANRec group) and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC group). Set-shifting was measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Trail Making Task (TMT). Dimensional measures of psychopathology were used, including the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ), the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

Results: Serum glutamine concentrations in the AN group (1,310.2 +/- 265.6 muM, mean +/- SD) were significantly higher (by approximately 20%) than those in the HC group (1,102.9 +/- 152.7 muM, mean +/- SD) (F(2, 70) = 6.3, P = 0.003, 95% CI 61.2 to 353.4). Concentrations of serum glutamine were positively associated with markers of the illness severity: a negative correlation was present between serum glutamine concentrations and body mass index (BMI) and lowest BMI and a positive correlation was found between duration of illness and EDEQ. The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors. In the AN group, there were no correlations between serum glutamine concentrations and set shifting.

Conclusions: Serum concentrations of glutamine may be a biomarker of illness severity in people with AN. It does not appear to be directly associated with changes in executive function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus