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Genetics of uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma: two of a kind?

van den Bosch T, Kilic E, Paridaens D, de Klein A - Dermatol Res Pract (2010)

Bottom Line: Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response.The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patients.Especially in UM, where the overall risk of metastasis is high (45%), genetic research might aid clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for future systemic adjuvant therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ocular Oncology, The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research techniques available and the contribution to our current understanding of melanoma. The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patients. Especially in UM, where the overall risk of metastasis is high (45%), genetic research might aid clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for future systemic adjuvant therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Uveal melanoma located in: iris (a), ciliary body (b) and choroid (c).
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fig1: Uveal melanoma located in: iris (a), ciliary body (b) and choroid (c).

Mentions: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) has shown to be one of the life-threatening malignancies with the fastest rise in incidence over the last decades. The highest incidence of CM is observed in Australia (60–70 per 100.000 individuals). In Europe and the USA the incidence is lower (10–15 and 20–30 per 100.000 [1, 2], resp.). CM accounts for more than 90% of all melanomas [3], whereas uveal melanoma (UM) is only encountered in 5% [4]. Nevertheless, UM is the most frequently occurring intraocular malignancy (85%) in the western world. Although CM and UM both derive from melanocytes, these two distinct tumors show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response [5, 6]. CM can occur anywhere on the body but is predominantly observed in sun-exposed body parts. This partly explains the high incidence of CM in the light-skinned residents of Australia and New-Zealand. UM can occur anywhere along the uveal tract but tend to occur more frequently in the choroid (80%) and the ciliary body (15%) (Figure 1). The incidence of UM appears to be relatively stable with around 7 new patients per 1 million individuals yearly in the western world. UV-light exposure has shown not to be of specific risk in UM. However recently, Schmidt et al. [7] demonstrated a positive interaction between UM and individuals with light colored eyes who sustained frequent UV-radiation. In addition, the tendency of iris melanomas to occur in the lower half of the iris has been explained by the increased sunlight exposure of this area [8]. Other known risk factors for CM and UM are fair skin type (CM and UM), familial occurrence of melanoma (CM) [9], number of melanocytic naevi (CM), light colored eyes (UM), and oculodermal melanocytosis (UM) [10, 11].


Genetics of uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma: two of a kind?

van den Bosch T, Kilic E, Paridaens D, de Klein A - Dermatol Res Pract (2010)

Uveal melanoma located in: iris (a), ciliary body (b) and choroid (c).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2902045&req=5

fig1: Uveal melanoma located in: iris (a), ciliary body (b) and choroid (c).
Mentions: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) has shown to be one of the life-threatening malignancies with the fastest rise in incidence over the last decades. The highest incidence of CM is observed in Australia (60–70 per 100.000 individuals). In Europe and the USA the incidence is lower (10–15 and 20–30 per 100.000 [1, 2], resp.). CM accounts for more than 90% of all melanomas [3], whereas uveal melanoma (UM) is only encountered in 5% [4]. Nevertheless, UM is the most frequently occurring intraocular malignancy (85%) in the western world. Although CM and UM both derive from melanocytes, these two distinct tumors show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response [5, 6]. CM can occur anywhere on the body but is predominantly observed in sun-exposed body parts. This partly explains the high incidence of CM in the light-skinned residents of Australia and New-Zealand. UM can occur anywhere along the uveal tract but tend to occur more frequently in the choroid (80%) and the ciliary body (15%) (Figure 1). The incidence of UM appears to be relatively stable with around 7 new patients per 1 million individuals yearly in the western world. UV-light exposure has shown not to be of specific risk in UM. However recently, Schmidt et al. [7] demonstrated a positive interaction between UM and individuals with light colored eyes who sustained frequent UV-radiation. In addition, the tendency of iris melanomas to occur in the lower half of the iris has been explained by the increased sunlight exposure of this area [8]. Other known risk factors for CM and UM are fair skin type (CM and UM), familial occurrence of melanoma (CM) [9], number of melanocytic naevi (CM), light colored eyes (UM), and oculodermal melanocytosis (UM) [10, 11].

Bottom Line: Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response.The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patients.Especially in UM, where the overall risk of metastasis is high (45%), genetic research might aid clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for future systemic adjuvant therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ocular Oncology, The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research techniques available and the contribution to our current understanding of melanoma. The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patients. Especially in UM, where the overall risk of metastasis is high (45%), genetic research might aid clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for future systemic adjuvant therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus