Limits...
Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review.

Band-Schmidt CJ, Bustillos-Guzmán JJ, López-Cortés DJ, Gárate-Lizárraga I, Núñez-Vázquez EJ, Hernández-Sandoval FE - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients.Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi.Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A.P. 592, La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico. cbands@ipn.mx

ABSTRACT
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

A map of Mexico showing coastal areas where Gymnodinium catenatum has been registered. Dark circle: first report; (1) Punta Colnett; (2) Bahía de Los Ángeles; (3) Bahía Concepción; (4) Bahía de La Paz; (5) Bahía Magdalena-Almejas; (6) Puerto Libertad; (7) Bahía Kun Kaak; (8) Bahía Bacochibampo; (9) Laguna de Macapule; (10) Cruz de Elota; (11) Punta Piaxtla; (12) Bahía de Mazatlán; (13) Teacapan; (14–15) Bahía Banderas and Puerto Vallarta; (16) Bahía de Manzanillo; (17) Lázaro Cárdenas; (18) Bahía de Acapulco;( 19) Laguna Corralero-Alotengo;( 20) Puerto Escondido;( 21) Salina Cruz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901831&req=5

f1-marinedrugs-08-01935: A map of Mexico showing coastal areas where Gymnodinium catenatum has been registered. Dark circle: first report; (1) Punta Colnett; (2) Bahía de Los Ángeles; (3) Bahía Concepción; (4) Bahía de La Paz; (5) Bahía Magdalena-Almejas; (6) Puerto Libertad; (7) Bahía Kun Kaak; (8) Bahía Bacochibampo; (9) Laguna de Macapule; (10) Cruz de Elota; (11) Punta Piaxtla; (12) Bahía de Mazatlán; (13) Teacapan; (14–15) Bahía Banderas and Puerto Vallarta; (16) Bahía de Manzanillo; (17) Lázaro Cárdenas; (18) Bahía de Acapulco;( 19) Laguna Corralero-Alotengo;( 20) Puerto Escondido;( 21) Salina Cruz.

Mentions: In Mexico, G. catenatum has only been reported along the Pacific coast (Figure 1). Blooms of this species were first observed in 1939 in the northern central part of the Gulf of California [1,2]. G. catenatum is the only unarmored dinoflagellate in this genus that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) [3].The production of PST was first demonstrated by Oshima et al. [4]. Probably the first record of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) on the Mexican Pacific was in 1939 [5]. The first PSP linked to G. catenatum occurred from the coast of Sonora to Jalisco states in 1979, with a toxicity reaching up to 7,500 μg STXeq 100 g−1 [6]. Three deaths and 19 shellfish poisonings of humans occurred during this event; the victims that were most seriously affected were between five and 14 years old [6,7]. Since 1979, 10 cases of intoxication have occurred in this bay [8]. During the last few years, reports of HAB and presence of this species in several bays along the Pacific coast have increased ( Table 1).


Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review.

Band-Schmidt CJ, Bustillos-Guzmán JJ, López-Cortés DJ, Gárate-Lizárraga I, Núñez-Vázquez EJ, Hernández-Sandoval FE - Mar Drugs (2010)

A map of Mexico showing coastal areas where Gymnodinium catenatum has been registered. Dark circle: first report; (1) Punta Colnett; (2) Bahía de Los Ángeles; (3) Bahía Concepción; (4) Bahía de La Paz; (5) Bahía Magdalena-Almejas; (6) Puerto Libertad; (7) Bahía Kun Kaak; (8) Bahía Bacochibampo; (9) Laguna de Macapule; (10) Cruz de Elota; (11) Punta Piaxtla; (12) Bahía de Mazatlán; (13) Teacapan; (14–15) Bahía Banderas and Puerto Vallarta; (16) Bahía de Manzanillo; (17) Lázaro Cárdenas; (18) Bahía de Acapulco;( 19) Laguna Corralero-Alotengo;( 20) Puerto Escondido;( 21) Salina Cruz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901831&req=5

f1-marinedrugs-08-01935: A map of Mexico showing coastal areas where Gymnodinium catenatum has been registered. Dark circle: first report; (1) Punta Colnett; (2) Bahía de Los Ángeles; (3) Bahía Concepción; (4) Bahía de La Paz; (5) Bahía Magdalena-Almejas; (6) Puerto Libertad; (7) Bahía Kun Kaak; (8) Bahía Bacochibampo; (9) Laguna de Macapule; (10) Cruz de Elota; (11) Punta Piaxtla; (12) Bahía de Mazatlán; (13) Teacapan; (14–15) Bahía Banderas and Puerto Vallarta; (16) Bahía de Manzanillo; (17) Lázaro Cárdenas; (18) Bahía de Acapulco;( 19) Laguna Corralero-Alotengo;( 20) Puerto Escondido;( 21) Salina Cruz.
Mentions: In Mexico, G. catenatum has only been reported along the Pacific coast (Figure 1). Blooms of this species were first observed in 1939 in the northern central part of the Gulf of California [1,2]. G. catenatum is the only unarmored dinoflagellate in this genus that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) [3].The production of PST was first demonstrated by Oshima et al. [4]. Probably the first record of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) on the Mexican Pacific was in 1939 [5]. The first PSP linked to G. catenatum occurred from the coast of Sonora to Jalisco states in 1979, with a toxicity reaching up to 7,500 μg STXeq 100 g−1 [6]. Three deaths and 19 shellfish poisonings of humans occurred during this event; the victims that were most seriously affected were between five and 14 years old [6,7]. Since 1979, 10 cases of intoxication have occurred in this bay [8]. During the last few years, reports of HAB and presence of this species in several bays along the Pacific coast have increased ( Table 1).

Bottom Line: G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients.Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi.Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A.P. 592, La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico. cbands@ipn.mx

ABSTRACT
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus