Limits...
Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Total ion chromatogram for a fish sample extract containing P-CTX-1 (3.83 min, 0.8 mg/kg), P-CTX-2 (5.01 min, 1.1 mg/kg) and P-CTX-3 (5.35 min, 1.4 mg/kg). Reprinted from [125], reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f8-marinedrugs-08-01838: Total ion chromatogram for a fish sample extract containing P-CTX-1 (3.83 min, 0.8 mg/kg), P-CTX-2 (5.01 min, 1.1 mg/kg) and P-CTX-3 (5.35 min, 1.4 mg/kg). Reprinted from [125], reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Recently, improved HPLC-MS/MS methods have been reported by Australian groups. Lewis et al. [124] reported HPLC-MS/MS analysis following a ciguatoxin rapid extraction method from 2 g fish flesh sample. A limit of quantification of 0.1 ng g−1 was achieved, which was suitable to confirm suspect ciguateric fish in the Pacific Ocean [124]. In this case, the HPLC system was equipped with a Luna C18 column (2.1 × 250 mm, 5 μm) and a guard column (4 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm), both from Phenomenex. The program gradient was performed with a binary mobile phase system consisting on 95%acetonitrile:water modified with 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. The MS/MS systems were triple quadrupole API 2000 and API 4000 QTRAP (Applied Biosystems), the latter more sensitive. The three MRM transition pairs for P-CTX-1 were based upon the fragmentation of the pseudomolecular ion [M + NH4]+, with subsequent loss of ammonia and successive losses of water (m/z: 1,128.7 > 1,093.7/1,075.7/1,057.7). Soon after, Stewart et al. presented a modification of the rapid extraction method proposed by Lewis et al. with HPLC-MS/MS analysis of P-CTX-1, -2 and, -3 in ciguatera-suspect fish [125] (Figure 8). The chromatographic system consisted of Prominence LC (Shimadzu Corp.) equipped with a Gemini C6-phenyl column (2 × 50 mm; Phenomenex) and an AB/Sciex API4000Q (AB/MSD Sciex). Acetonitrile:water-based gradient, similar to other previously reported and equally modified with 2 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid, was used. The MRM transitions for MS/MS detection were based upon those previously reported [124], and extended to the analysis of CTX-2 and -3 (m/z: 1,128.7 > 1,093.7/1,075.7/1,057.7 for P-CTX1 and 1,112.7 > 1,077.6/1,059.6/1,041.6 for P-CTX-2 and -3).


Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Total ion chromatogram for a fish sample extract containing P-CTX-1 (3.83 min, 0.8 mg/kg), P-CTX-2 (5.01 min, 1.1 mg/kg) and P-CTX-3 (5.35 min, 1.4 mg/kg). Reprinted from [125], reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f8-marinedrugs-08-01838: Total ion chromatogram for a fish sample extract containing P-CTX-1 (3.83 min, 0.8 mg/kg), P-CTX-2 (5.01 min, 1.1 mg/kg) and P-CTX-3 (5.35 min, 1.4 mg/kg). Reprinted from [125], reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Recently, improved HPLC-MS/MS methods have been reported by Australian groups. Lewis et al. [124] reported HPLC-MS/MS analysis following a ciguatoxin rapid extraction method from 2 g fish flesh sample. A limit of quantification of 0.1 ng g−1 was achieved, which was suitable to confirm suspect ciguateric fish in the Pacific Ocean [124]. In this case, the HPLC system was equipped with a Luna C18 column (2.1 × 250 mm, 5 μm) and a guard column (4 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm), both from Phenomenex. The program gradient was performed with a binary mobile phase system consisting on 95%acetonitrile:water modified with 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. The MS/MS systems were triple quadrupole API 2000 and API 4000 QTRAP (Applied Biosystems), the latter more sensitive. The three MRM transition pairs for P-CTX-1 were based upon the fragmentation of the pseudomolecular ion [M + NH4]+, with subsequent loss of ammonia and successive losses of water (m/z: 1,128.7 > 1,093.7/1,075.7/1,057.7). Soon after, Stewart et al. presented a modification of the rapid extraction method proposed by Lewis et al. with HPLC-MS/MS analysis of P-CTX-1, -2 and, -3 in ciguatera-suspect fish [125] (Figure 8). The chromatographic system consisted of Prominence LC (Shimadzu Corp.) equipped with a Gemini C6-phenyl column (2 × 50 mm; Phenomenex) and an AB/Sciex API4000Q (AB/MSD Sciex). Acetonitrile:water-based gradient, similar to other previously reported and equally modified with 2 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid, was used. The MRM transitions for MS/MS detection were based upon those previously reported [124], and extended to the analysis of CTX-2 and -3 (m/z: 1,128.7 > 1,093.7/1,075.7/1,057.7 for P-CTX1 and 1,112.7 > 1,077.6/1,059.6/1,041.6 for P-CTX-2 and -3).

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus