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Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

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Extraction and purification procedure of CTXs from wild and cultured Gambierdiscus spp. cell pellets [33,68,69].
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f6-marinedrugs-08-01838: Extraction and purification procedure of CTXs from wild and cultured Gambierdiscus spp. cell pellets [33,68,69].

Mentions: It is clear that the purification procedure for CTXs is highly conditioned by the presence of MTX, and may vary according to the type of sample. For instance, highly concentrated MTX samples may require the combination of solvent partition with chromatographic fractioning using SPE or HPLC so as to improve the separation of CTXs from MTX. Historically, MBA has been widely used for assessing the good separation of CTXs versus MTXs [69,83], although the presence of CTXs in the different fractions obtained may also be monitored using RBA [33] or CBA [136]. A recently developed CBA for the detection of MTX may help with the identification of the interferences MTX produce during CTX purification steps [137]. Figure 6 illustrates a protocol for CTX extraction and purification for use with the MBA and RBA [33,68,69]. In the case of further characterization of CTXs with LC-MS analysis, additional purification steps through SPE and HPLC fractioning are required [69]. This extraction procedure has been successfully used for the identification of toxic blooms of Gambierdiscus in field-monitoring programs [33], as well as for the assessment of the toxin profiles of highly potent G. polynesiensis strains [69].


Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Extraction and purification procedure of CTXs from wild and cultured Gambierdiscus spp. cell pellets [33,68,69].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f6-marinedrugs-08-01838: Extraction and purification procedure of CTXs from wild and cultured Gambierdiscus spp. cell pellets [33,68,69].
Mentions: It is clear that the purification procedure for CTXs is highly conditioned by the presence of MTX, and may vary according to the type of sample. For instance, highly concentrated MTX samples may require the combination of solvent partition with chromatographic fractioning using SPE or HPLC so as to improve the separation of CTXs from MTX. Historically, MBA has been widely used for assessing the good separation of CTXs versus MTXs [69,83], although the presence of CTXs in the different fractions obtained may also be monitored using RBA [33] or CBA [136]. A recently developed CBA for the detection of MTX may help with the identification of the interferences MTX produce during CTX purification steps [137]. Figure 6 illustrates a protocol for CTX extraction and purification for use with the MBA and RBA [33,68,69]. In the case of further characterization of CTXs with LC-MS analysis, additional purification steps through SPE and HPLC fractioning are required [69]. This extraction procedure has been successfully used for the identification of toxic blooms of Gambierdiscus in field-monitoring programs [33], as well as for the assessment of the toxin profiles of highly potent G. polynesiensis strains [69].

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus