Limits...
Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Rapid extraction and purification procedures for CTX determination in Pacific fish samples using LC-MS/MS analysis (CREM-LC-MS/MS) [124].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f5-marinedrugs-08-01838: Rapid extraction and purification procedures for CTX determination in Pacific fish samples using LC-MS/MS analysis (CREM-LC-MS/MS) [124].

Mentions: A CTX rapid extraction method (CREM) was developed by Lewis et al. [124] in order to reduce the time of sample preparation with the extraction of only 2 g fish flesh to be used with LC-MS analysis (Figure 5). The CREM was described as a successful procedure for P-CTX determination in Pacific carnivorous fish, allowing 95% recovery of spiked P-CTX-1 and 85% recovery of P-CTX-1 spiked at a concentration close to the limit of quantification of the method (0.1 ppb). According to these authors, CREM combined with LC-MS improves sensitivity and allows multiple analyses per day [124]. Stewart et al. [125] further adapted the CREM described by Lewis [124] with an additional methanol:hexane extraction step while omitting the final normal-phase SPE clean-up. This modified CREM not only reduced the time of preparation for fish extracts while requiring only a small quantity of fish flesh, but also showed an excellent reproducibility for P-CTX recovery from fish flesh, as well as a lower detection limit of 0.03 ng g−1 using LC-MS-MS [125].


Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Rapid extraction and purification procedures for CTX determination in Pacific fish samples using LC-MS/MS analysis (CREM-LC-MS/MS) [124].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f5-marinedrugs-08-01838: Rapid extraction and purification procedures for CTX determination in Pacific fish samples using LC-MS/MS analysis (CREM-LC-MS/MS) [124].
Mentions: A CTX rapid extraction method (CREM) was developed by Lewis et al. [124] in order to reduce the time of sample preparation with the extraction of only 2 g fish flesh to be used with LC-MS analysis (Figure 5). The CREM was described as a successful procedure for P-CTX determination in Pacific carnivorous fish, allowing 95% recovery of spiked P-CTX-1 and 85% recovery of P-CTX-1 spiked at a concentration close to the limit of quantification of the method (0.1 ppb). According to these authors, CREM combined with LC-MS improves sensitivity and allows multiple analyses per day [124]. Stewart et al. [125] further adapted the CREM described by Lewis [124] with an additional methanol:hexane extraction step while omitting the final normal-phase SPE clean-up. This modified CREM not only reduced the time of preparation for fish extracts while requiring only a small quantity of fish flesh, but also showed an excellent reproducibility for P-CTX recovery from fish flesh, as well as a lower detection limit of 0.03 ng g−1 using LC-MS-MS [125].

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus