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Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) General and specific structures of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) (b) Structure of Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTX-1).
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f1-marinedrugs-08-01838: (a) General and specific structures of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) (b) Structure of Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTX-1).

Mentions: CTX-1B, a 60 carbon polycyclic ether, was the first CTX completely described in 1990 by Murata et al. [100]. Numerous congeners of CTXs, originating from fish and microalgae of the Pacific (P-CTXs), were further described. These congeners presented slight modifications of their lipophilicity. Occurrence of these different toxins in fish and microalgal samples vary. However, P-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1B) usually dominates toxin profiles in the carnivorous fish tissue of the Pacific [45,92]. In order to classify the different congeners of CTXs, Legrand et al. [101] proposed the distinction between two families of P-CTXs (types 1 and 2) according to the number of carbons and the structure of the E ring (See Table 1 and Figure 1). Two CTXs from the Carribean Sea (C-CTXs) were first isolated by Vernoux and Lewis [94], and further identified structurally in 1998 [94,102] (Table 1 and Figure 1). Additional congeners were later identified by Pottier et al. [97,98]. More recently, four Indian Ocean CTXs (I-CTXs) were isolated [96], but their structural determination remains to be established.


Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

Caillaud A, de la Iglesia P, Darius HT, Pauillac S, Aligizaki K, Fraga S, Chinain M, Diogène J - Mar Drugs (2010)

(a) General and specific structures of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) (b) Structure of Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTX-1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901828&req=5

f1-marinedrugs-08-01838: (a) General and specific structures of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) (b) Structure of Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTX-1).
Mentions: CTX-1B, a 60 carbon polycyclic ether, was the first CTX completely described in 1990 by Murata et al. [100]. Numerous congeners of CTXs, originating from fish and microalgae of the Pacific (P-CTXs), were further described. These congeners presented slight modifications of their lipophilicity. Occurrence of these different toxins in fish and microalgal samples vary. However, P-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1B) usually dominates toxin profiles in the carnivorous fish tissue of the Pacific [45,92]. In order to classify the different congeners of CTXs, Legrand et al. [101] proposed the distinction between two families of P-CTXs (types 1 and 2) according to the number of carbons and the structure of the E ring (See Table 1 and Figure 1). Two CTXs from the Carribean Sea (C-CTXs) were first isolated by Vernoux and Lewis [94], and further identified structurally in 1998 [94,102] (Table 1 and Figure 1). Additional congeners were later identified by Pottier et al. [97,98]. More recently, four Indian Ocean CTXs (I-CTXs) were isolated [96], but their structural determination remains to be established.

Bottom Line: Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas.Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1].The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain. amandine.caillaud@irta.es

ABSTRACT
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus