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Intramolecular modulation of serine protease inhibitor activity in a marine cyanobacterium with antifeedant properties.

Matthew S, Ratnayake R, Becerro MA, Ritson-Williams R, Paul VJ, Luesch H - Mar Drugs (2010)

Bottom Line: Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum).The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested.This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. susmatt@ufl.edu

ABSTRACT
Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors.

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Feeding experiments with the crude extracts of L. cf. confervoides. The bars represent the mean amount of food eaten and the error bars are +1 SE. Different letters above the bars represent means that are statistically different. (a). Feeding experiments with a natural assemblage of reef fish. (b). Feeding experiments with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum.
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f2-marinedrugs-08-01803: Feeding experiments with the crude extracts of L. cf. confervoides. The bars represent the mean amount of food eaten and the error bars are +1 SE. Different letters above the bars represent means that are statistically different. (a). Feeding experiments with a natural assemblage of reef fish. (b). Feeding experiments with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum.

Mentions: When tested against a natural assemblage of reef fish in field feeding experiments, where many individuals of diverse fish species would feed on food cubes containing cyanobacterial extracts, both the polar and non-polar extracts reduced feeding on agar food cubes. The fish consumed 3.58 ± 0.14 (mean ± SE) agar cubes of the control food, 2.84 ± 0.21 agar cubes of the food containing the polar extract, and 1.52 ± 0.29 of the agar cubes that contained the non-polar extract (Figure 2a). There were significant differences in the amount of food eaten (n = 19, Friedman’s random block, p < 0.001), with less of the polar extract eaten by the fish than the solvent controls and the least amount eaten of the food containing the non-polar extract (Student Newman Keuls post-hoc test, p < 0.05).


Intramolecular modulation of serine protease inhibitor activity in a marine cyanobacterium with antifeedant properties.

Matthew S, Ratnayake R, Becerro MA, Ritson-Williams R, Paul VJ, Luesch H - Mar Drugs (2010)

Feeding experiments with the crude extracts of L. cf. confervoides. The bars represent the mean amount of food eaten and the error bars are +1 SE. Different letters above the bars represent means that are statistically different. (a). Feeding experiments with a natural assemblage of reef fish. (b). Feeding experiments with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901826&req=5

f2-marinedrugs-08-01803: Feeding experiments with the crude extracts of L. cf. confervoides. The bars represent the mean amount of food eaten and the error bars are +1 SE. Different letters above the bars represent means that are statistically different. (a). Feeding experiments with a natural assemblage of reef fish. (b). Feeding experiments with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum.
Mentions: When tested against a natural assemblage of reef fish in field feeding experiments, where many individuals of diverse fish species would feed on food cubes containing cyanobacterial extracts, both the polar and non-polar extracts reduced feeding on agar food cubes. The fish consumed 3.58 ± 0.14 (mean ± SE) agar cubes of the control food, 2.84 ± 0.21 agar cubes of the food containing the polar extract, and 1.52 ± 0.29 of the agar cubes that contained the non-polar extract (Figure 2a). There were significant differences in the amount of food eaten (n = 19, Friedman’s random block, p < 0.001), with less of the polar extract eaten by the fish than the solvent controls and the least amount eaten of the food containing the non-polar extract (Student Newman Keuls post-hoc test, p < 0.05).

Bottom Line: Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum).The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested.This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. susmatt@ufl.edu

ABSTRACT
Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus