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Measuring population health outcomes.

Parrish RG - Prev Chronic Dis (2010)

Bottom Line: Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being.On the basis of a review of outcomes metrics currently in use and the availability of data for at least some US counties, I recommend the following metrics for population health outcomes: 1) life expectancy from birth, or age-adjusted mortality rate; 2) condition-specific changes in life expectancy, or condition-specific or age-specific mortality rates; and 3) self-reported level of health, functional status, and experiential status.When reported, outcome metrics should present both the overall level of health of a population and the distribution of health among different geographic, economic, and demographic groups in the population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: gib.parrish@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis of a review of outcomes metrics currently in use and the availability of data for at least some US counties, I recommend the following metrics for population health outcomes: 1) life expectancy from birth, or age-adjusted mortality rate; 2) condition-specific changes in life expectancy, or condition-specific or age-specific mortality rates; and 3) self-reported level of health, functional status, and experiential status. When reported, outcome metrics should present both the overall level of health of a population and the distribution of health among different geographic, economic, and demographic groups in the population.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A causal web that illustrates various factors influencing health outcomes and interactions among them. Solid arrows represent potential causal relationships between factors, diseases, and outcomes. Dashed arrows represent potential feedback from outcomes and diseases on proximal and distal factors. Distal and proximal factors operate through both intermediate factors and directly on health outcomes. For example, a person's level of education can directly influence his or her subjective sense of health and level of social function and also influence intermediate factors, such as diet and exercise. Similarly, the understanding that death or loss of function may occur as the result of a person's lifestyle or social and economic factors, such as education and poverty, may influence those factors through either behavior change or changes in social or economic policy. Examples of factors, diseases, and injuries were chosen to provide a sense of the breadth of available factors. To improve readability, the relationships among proximal factors, physiologic factors, diseases and injuries, and health outcomes have been simplified. Adapted from references 4-6. Abbreviation: ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
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Figure 1: A causal web that illustrates various factors influencing health outcomes and interactions among them. Solid arrows represent potential causal relationships between factors, diseases, and outcomes. Dashed arrows represent potential feedback from outcomes and diseases on proximal and distal factors. Distal and proximal factors operate through both intermediate factors and directly on health outcomes. For example, a person's level of education can directly influence his or her subjective sense of health and level of social function and also influence intermediate factors, such as diet and exercise. Similarly, the understanding that death or loss of function may occur as the result of a person's lifestyle or social and economic factors, such as education and poverty, may influence those factors through either behavior change or changes in social or economic policy. Examples of factors, diseases, and injuries were chosen to provide a sense of the breadth of available factors. To improve readability, the relationships among proximal factors, physiologic factors, diseases and injuries, and health outcomes have been simplified. Adapted from references 4-6. Abbreviation: ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Mentions: The level and distribution of health outcomes in populations result from a complex web of cultural, environmental, political, social, economic, behavioral, and genetic factors (Figure). In this causal web, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors, rather than outcomes, that may influence a person's health. Lung cancer, for example, has a substantial effect on physical function and lifespan, while first-degree sunburn has little effect. Health outcome metrics are standards for measuring health outcomes. Recommending a set of metrics for monitoring a population's health outcomes — as opposed to a person's health outcomes — is the objective of this essay.


Measuring population health outcomes.

Parrish RG - Prev Chronic Dis (2010)

A causal web that illustrates various factors influencing health outcomes and interactions among them. Solid arrows represent potential causal relationships between factors, diseases, and outcomes. Dashed arrows represent potential feedback from outcomes and diseases on proximal and distal factors. Distal and proximal factors operate through both intermediate factors and directly on health outcomes. For example, a person's level of education can directly influence his or her subjective sense of health and level of social function and also influence intermediate factors, such as diet and exercise. Similarly, the understanding that death or loss of function may occur as the result of a person's lifestyle or social and economic factors, such as education and poverty, may influence those factors through either behavior change or changes in social or economic policy. Examples of factors, diseases, and injuries were chosen to provide a sense of the breadth of available factors. To improve readability, the relationships among proximal factors, physiologic factors, diseases and injuries, and health outcomes have been simplified. Adapted from references 4-6. Abbreviation: ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2901569&req=5

Figure 1: A causal web that illustrates various factors influencing health outcomes and interactions among them. Solid arrows represent potential causal relationships between factors, diseases, and outcomes. Dashed arrows represent potential feedback from outcomes and diseases on proximal and distal factors. Distal and proximal factors operate through both intermediate factors and directly on health outcomes. For example, a person's level of education can directly influence his or her subjective sense of health and level of social function and also influence intermediate factors, such as diet and exercise. Similarly, the understanding that death or loss of function may occur as the result of a person's lifestyle or social and economic factors, such as education and poverty, may influence those factors through either behavior change or changes in social or economic policy. Examples of factors, diseases, and injuries were chosen to provide a sense of the breadth of available factors. To improve readability, the relationships among proximal factors, physiologic factors, diseases and injuries, and health outcomes have been simplified. Adapted from references 4-6. Abbreviation: ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Mentions: The level and distribution of health outcomes in populations result from a complex web of cultural, environmental, political, social, economic, behavioral, and genetic factors (Figure). In this causal web, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors, rather than outcomes, that may influence a person's health. Lung cancer, for example, has a substantial effect on physical function and lifespan, while first-degree sunburn has little effect. Health outcome metrics are standards for measuring health outcomes. Recommending a set of metrics for monitoring a population's health outcomes — as opposed to a person's health outcomes — is the objective of this essay.

Bottom Line: Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being.On the basis of a review of outcomes metrics currently in use and the availability of data for at least some US counties, I recommend the following metrics for population health outcomes: 1) life expectancy from birth, or age-adjusted mortality rate; 2) condition-specific changes in life expectancy, or condition-specific or age-specific mortality rates; and 3) self-reported level of health, functional status, and experiential status.When reported, outcome metrics should present both the overall level of health of a population and the distribution of health among different geographic, economic, and demographic groups in the population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: gib.parrish@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis of a review of outcomes metrics currently in use and the availability of data for at least some US counties, I recommend the following metrics for population health outcomes: 1) life expectancy from birth, or age-adjusted mortality rate; 2) condition-specific changes in life expectancy, or condition-specific or age-specific mortality rates; and 3) self-reported level of health, functional status, and experiential status. When reported, outcome metrics should present both the overall level of health of a population and the distribution of health among different geographic, economic, and demographic groups in the population.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus