Limits...
Skin aging and photoaging alter fatty acids composition, including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, in the epidermis of human skin.

Kim EJ, Kim MK, Jin XJ, Oh JH, Kim JE, Chung JH - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2010)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis.The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2).Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2). We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

The changes of free fatty acid (FFA) composition in the epidermis of human skin. (A) The changes of FFA composition in aged epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin and aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=4) buttock skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (B) The change of FFA composition in photoaged epidermis. Aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=5) buttock/forearm skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (C) The change of FFA composition in acutely UV-irradiated buttock epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin was obtained by punch biopsy at the indicated time points after UV irradiation (2 MED). Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2877242&req=5

Figure 1: The changes of free fatty acid (FFA) composition in the epidermis of human skin. (A) The changes of FFA composition in aged epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin and aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=4) buttock skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (B) The change of FFA composition in photoaged epidermis. Aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=5) buttock/forearm skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (C) The change of FFA composition in acutely UV-irradiated buttock epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin was obtained by punch biopsy at the indicated time points after UV irradiation (2 MED). Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA).

Mentions: The palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and (all-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA, C20:3n-3) were determined as major fatty acid components in the human epidermis (Fig. 1). Among them, linoleic acid and ETA belong to PUFAs. The linoleic acid, one of essential fatty acids, is well known as the precursor of arachidonic acid synthesis. However, the physiological function of ETA has not been well investigated. The levels of SFAs such as palmitic acid and stearic acid, PUFAs such as linoleic acid and ETA were decreased in aged skin by 15%, 31%, 7%, and 56%, compared with those in young skin, respectively. Especially, ETA was most significantly decreased in aged skin, indicating that it may relate with intrinsic aging. In contrast, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were increased in aged skin by 67% and 22%, respectively, compared with those in young skin (Fig. 1A).


Skin aging and photoaging alter fatty acids composition, including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, in the epidermis of human skin.

Kim EJ, Kim MK, Jin XJ, Oh JH, Kim JE, Chung JH - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2010)

The changes of free fatty acid (FFA) composition in the epidermis of human skin. (A) The changes of FFA composition in aged epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin and aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=4) buttock skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (B) The change of FFA composition in photoaged epidermis. Aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=5) buttock/forearm skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (C) The change of FFA composition in acutely UV-irradiated buttock epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin was obtained by punch biopsy at the indicated time points after UV irradiation (2 MED). Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2877242&req=5

Figure 1: The changes of free fatty acid (FFA) composition in the epidermis of human skin. (A) The changes of FFA composition in aged epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin and aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=4) buttock skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (B) The change of FFA composition in photoaged epidermis. Aged human (mean age 72.7 yr; age range 70-75 yr, n=5) buttock/forearm skin were obtained by punch biopsy. Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). †P<0.01, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA). (C) The change of FFA composition in acutely UV-irradiated buttock epidermis. Young human (mean age 26.5 yr; age range 21-33 yr, n=4) buttock skin was obtained by punch biopsy at the indicated time points after UV irradiation (2 MED). Total lipids were extracted with chroloform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8, v/v/v). Lipid extracts were analyzed by typical gas chromatography (GC). *P<0.05, C16:0-palmitic acid (PA), C16:1-palmitoleic acid (PtA), C18:0-stearic acid (SA), C18:1n9-oleic acid (OA), 18:2n6-linoleic acid (LA), C20:3n3-(All-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA).
Mentions: The palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and (all-cis)-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA, C20:3n-3) were determined as major fatty acid components in the human epidermis (Fig. 1). Among them, linoleic acid and ETA belong to PUFAs. The linoleic acid, one of essential fatty acids, is well known as the precursor of arachidonic acid synthesis. However, the physiological function of ETA has not been well investigated. The levels of SFAs such as palmitic acid and stearic acid, PUFAs such as linoleic acid and ETA were decreased in aged skin by 15%, 31%, 7%, and 56%, compared with those in young skin, respectively. Especially, ETA was most significantly decreased in aged skin, indicating that it may relate with intrinsic aging. In contrast, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were increased in aged skin by 67% and 22%, respectively, compared with those in young skin (Fig. 1A).

Bottom Line: Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis.The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2).Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2). We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus