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Increased seizure susceptibility and up-regulation of nNOS expression in hippocampus following recurrent early-life seizures in rats.

Kim DK - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2010)

Bottom Line: Changes in nNOS expression were determined by quantitative immunoblotting on day 50.Up-regulation of nNOS expression following early-life recurrent seizures was observed on day 50.In conclusion, these data suggested that recurrent early-life seizures had the long-term effects on seizure susceptibility late in life and up-regulatory nNOS expression on the hippocampus during brain development, and nNOS appeared to contribute to the persistent changes in seizure susceptibility, and epileptogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea. pedepi@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to determine the long-term change of seizure susceptibility and the role of nNOS on brain development following recurrent early-life seizures in rats. Video-EEG recordings were conducted between postnatal days 50 and 60. Alterations in seizure susceptibility were assayed on day 22 or 50 using the flurothyl method. Changes in nNOS expression were determined by quantitative immunoblotting on day 50. On average, rats had 8.4+/-2.7 seizures during 10 daily 1 hr behavioral monitoring sessions. As adults (days 50-60), all rats displayed interictal spikes in the hippocampus and/or overlying cortex. Brief electrographic seizures were recorded in only one of five animals. Rats appeared to progress from a period of marked seizure susceptibility (day 22) to one of lessened seizure susceptibility (day 50). Up-regulation of nNOS expression following early-life recurrent seizures was observed on day 50. In conclusion, these data suggested that recurrent early-life seizures had the long-term effects on seizure susceptibility late in life and up-regulatory nNOS expression on the hippocampus during brain development, and nNOS appeared to contribute to the persistent changes in seizure susceptibility, and epileptogenesis.

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Behavioral monitoring of seizures in infant rats. Average seizures during the 10 hr of observation (one hour/1 day for 10 days); 8.4±2.73, Seizure frequency peaks; within 24-48 hr.WRS, wild running seizure; TNTX, tetanus toxin.
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Figure 1: Behavioral monitoring of seizures in infant rats. Average seizures during the 10 hr of observation (one hour/1 day for 10 days); 8.4±2.73, Seizure frequency peaks; within 24-48 hr.WRS, wild running seizure; TNTX, tetanus toxin.

Mentions: As has been reported previously (13), after a TNTX injection, behavioral seizures were first observed in rat pups 24-48 hr later. The frequency of seizures peaked during the monitoring sessions on the second day after the injection (Fig. 1). At that time, the rats often displayed repetitive behavioral seizures which included a constellation of the following behaviors: wild running, clonic face and limb movements, wet dog shakes, and head nodding. The wild running seizures were accompanied by vocalizations, jumping, and infrequent tonicclonic seizures. A flurry of wet dog shakes were noted to precede or follow a wild running episode. Because wild running episodes were the easiest to identify, wild running seizures were counted during daily 1 hr observation periods. All TNTX-treated rats displayed wild running seizures and they were never observed in saline-injected or untreated litter-mate controls. Following the peak frequency on post-injection day 2, seizures declined in number over the next 5 days (Fig. 1). Seizures were not observed 7 days after the injections. On average, rats had 8.4±2.7 seizures during the daily 1 hr monitoring sessions. The duration of seizures varied widely but most (66%) were less than 1 min and the remainder no more than 2-3 min long.


Increased seizure susceptibility and up-regulation of nNOS expression in hippocampus following recurrent early-life seizures in rats.

Kim DK - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2010)

Behavioral monitoring of seizures in infant rats. Average seizures during the 10 hr of observation (one hour/1 day for 10 days); 8.4±2.73, Seizure frequency peaks; within 24-48 hr.WRS, wild running seizure; TNTX, tetanus toxin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2877220&req=5

Figure 1: Behavioral monitoring of seizures in infant rats. Average seizures during the 10 hr of observation (one hour/1 day for 10 days); 8.4±2.73, Seizure frequency peaks; within 24-48 hr.WRS, wild running seizure; TNTX, tetanus toxin.
Mentions: As has been reported previously (13), after a TNTX injection, behavioral seizures were first observed in rat pups 24-48 hr later. The frequency of seizures peaked during the monitoring sessions on the second day after the injection (Fig. 1). At that time, the rats often displayed repetitive behavioral seizures which included a constellation of the following behaviors: wild running, clonic face and limb movements, wet dog shakes, and head nodding. The wild running seizures were accompanied by vocalizations, jumping, and infrequent tonicclonic seizures. A flurry of wet dog shakes were noted to precede or follow a wild running episode. Because wild running episodes were the easiest to identify, wild running seizures were counted during daily 1 hr observation periods. All TNTX-treated rats displayed wild running seizures and they were never observed in saline-injected or untreated litter-mate controls. Following the peak frequency on post-injection day 2, seizures declined in number over the next 5 days (Fig. 1). Seizures were not observed 7 days after the injections. On average, rats had 8.4±2.7 seizures during the daily 1 hr monitoring sessions. The duration of seizures varied widely but most (66%) were less than 1 min and the remainder no more than 2-3 min long.

Bottom Line: Changes in nNOS expression were determined by quantitative immunoblotting on day 50.Up-regulation of nNOS expression following early-life recurrent seizures was observed on day 50.In conclusion, these data suggested that recurrent early-life seizures had the long-term effects on seizure susceptibility late in life and up-regulatory nNOS expression on the hippocampus during brain development, and nNOS appeared to contribute to the persistent changes in seizure susceptibility, and epileptogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea. pedepi@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to determine the long-term change of seizure susceptibility and the role of nNOS on brain development following recurrent early-life seizures in rats. Video-EEG recordings were conducted between postnatal days 50 and 60. Alterations in seizure susceptibility were assayed on day 22 or 50 using the flurothyl method. Changes in nNOS expression were determined by quantitative immunoblotting on day 50. On average, rats had 8.4+/-2.7 seizures during 10 daily 1 hr behavioral monitoring sessions. As adults (days 50-60), all rats displayed interictal spikes in the hippocampus and/or overlying cortex. Brief electrographic seizures were recorded in only one of five animals. Rats appeared to progress from a period of marked seizure susceptibility (day 22) to one of lessened seizure susceptibility (day 50). Up-regulation of nNOS expression following early-life recurrent seizures was observed on day 50. In conclusion, these data suggested that recurrent early-life seizures had the long-term effects on seizure susceptibility late in life and up-regulatory nNOS expression on the hippocampus during brain development, and nNOS appeared to contribute to the persistent changes in seizure susceptibility, and epileptogenesis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus