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A three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee neck.

Berry RP, Ibbotson MR - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: We used serial sectioning combined with manual registration and segmentation of images to develop a comprehensive and detailed three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee head-neck system.This interactive atlas includes skeletal structures of the head and prothorax, the neck musculature, and the nervous system.The scope and resolution of the model exceeds atlases previously developed on similar sized animals, and the interactive nature of the model provides a far more accessible means of interpreting and comprehending insect anatomy and neuroanatomy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Three-dimensional digital atlases are rapidly becoming indispensible in modern biology. We used serial sectioning combined with manual registration and segmentation of images to develop a comprehensive and detailed three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee head-neck system. This interactive atlas includes skeletal structures of the head and prothorax, the neck musculature, and the nervous system. The scope and resolution of the model exceeds atlases previously developed on similar sized animals, and the interactive nature of the model provides a far more accessible means of interpreting and comprehending insect anatomy and neuroanatomy.

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The steps involved in generation of the three-dimensional atlas.(A) Imaging: multiple images of each section were stitched together to create a single high-resolution image. Outline of multiple images are visible as white boundaries on the black background. (B) Alignment: images of each section were aligned relative to each other. Registration was quickly verified by volume rendering the image stack; the bee head and thorax are shown from the top (left) and side (right). (C) Segmentation: every structure of interest was manually outlined in each of the aligned sections. Different colours overlaid over this cross-section of the prothorax represent different structures. The boxed area illustrates the region shown in Fig. 11. (D) Model generation: mesh models were created from stacks of segmented images using Amira 3.1. (E) Redrawing: mesh models were greatly smoothed, simplified, and corrected for artefacts by manually redrawing using Silo 2.1. The approximate total number of polygons in each of the mesh models is indicated by n.
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pone-0010771-g010: The steps involved in generation of the three-dimensional atlas.(A) Imaging: multiple images of each section were stitched together to create a single high-resolution image. Outline of multiple images are visible as white boundaries on the black background. (B) Alignment: images of each section were aligned relative to each other. Registration was quickly verified by volume rendering the image stack; the bee head and thorax are shown from the top (left) and side (right). (C) Segmentation: every structure of interest was manually outlined in each of the aligned sections. Different colours overlaid over this cross-section of the prothorax represent different structures. The boxed area illustrates the region shown in Fig. 11. (D) Model generation: mesh models were created from stacks of segmented images using Amira 3.1. (E) Redrawing: mesh models were greatly smoothed, simplified, and corrected for artefacts by manually redrawing using Silo 2.1. The approximate total number of polygons in each of the mesh models is indicated by n.

Mentions: The specimen was serially sectioned with a diamond knife (Diatome, HistoJumbo) at 1 µm intervals on a Reichert-Jung ultramicrotome. Every tenth section was retained (resulting in a total of 304 sections), post-stained with toluidine blue and imaged on a Zeiss Axioplan 2 equipped with a Zeiss MRc camera. The large size of the sections relative to the high resolution required to resolve small nerve fibres necessitated imaging regions of each section individually, then stitching the multiple images together (Fig. 10A). This was facilitated using a semi-automated panoramic imaging module on the Zeiss Axioplan 2 (Zeiss AxioVision Panorama module). The outer boundaries of images were padded with black pixels, so that all resized images consisted of identical pixel dimensions (3171×3012 pixels) (Matlab, The MathWorks). The dimensions of the entire block were approximately 4.1×3.9×3.0 mm, with voxel (µm/pixel) dimensions of 1.289×1.289×10 (width×height×depth).


A three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee neck.

Berry RP, Ibbotson MR - PLoS ONE (2010)

The steps involved in generation of the three-dimensional atlas.(A) Imaging: multiple images of each section were stitched together to create a single high-resolution image. Outline of multiple images are visible as white boundaries on the black background. (B) Alignment: images of each section were aligned relative to each other. Registration was quickly verified by volume rendering the image stack; the bee head and thorax are shown from the top (left) and side (right). (C) Segmentation: every structure of interest was manually outlined in each of the aligned sections. Different colours overlaid over this cross-section of the prothorax represent different structures. The boxed area illustrates the region shown in Fig. 11. (D) Model generation: mesh models were created from stacks of segmented images using Amira 3.1. (E) Redrawing: mesh models were greatly smoothed, simplified, and corrected for artefacts by manually redrawing using Silo 2.1. The approximate total number of polygons in each of the mesh models is indicated by n.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2875396&req=5

pone-0010771-g010: The steps involved in generation of the three-dimensional atlas.(A) Imaging: multiple images of each section were stitched together to create a single high-resolution image. Outline of multiple images are visible as white boundaries on the black background. (B) Alignment: images of each section were aligned relative to each other. Registration was quickly verified by volume rendering the image stack; the bee head and thorax are shown from the top (left) and side (right). (C) Segmentation: every structure of interest was manually outlined in each of the aligned sections. Different colours overlaid over this cross-section of the prothorax represent different structures. The boxed area illustrates the region shown in Fig. 11. (D) Model generation: mesh models were created from stacks of segmented images using Amira 3.1. (E) Redrawing: mesh models were greatly smoothed, simplified, and corrected for artefacts by manually redrawing using Silo 2.1. The approximate total number of polygons in each of the mesh models is indicated by n.
Mentions: The specimen was serially sectioned with a diamond knife (Diatome, HistoJumbo) at 1 µm intervals on a Reichert-Jung ultramicrotome. Every tenth section was retained (resulting in a total of 304 sections), post-stained with toluidine blue and imaged on a Zeiss Axioplan 2 equipped with a Zeiss MRc camera. The large size of the sections relative to the high resolution required to resolve small nerve fibres necessitated imaging regions of each section individually, then stitching the multiple images together (Fig. 10A). This was facilitated using a semi-automated panoramic imaging module on the Zeiss Axioplan 2 (Zeiss AxioVision Panorama module). The outer boundaries of images were padded with black pixels, so that all resized images consisted of identical pixel dimensions (3171×3012 pixels) (Matlab, The MathWorks). The dimensions of the entire block were approximately 4.1×3.9×3.0 mm, with voxel (µm/pixel) dimensions of 1.289×1.289×10 (width×height×depth).

Bottom Line: We used serial sectioning combined with manual registration and segmentation of images to develop a comprehensive and detailed three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee head-neck system.This interactive atlas includes skeletal structures of the head and prothorax, the neck musculature, and the nervous system.The scope and resolution of the model exceeds atlases previously developed on similar sized animals, and the interactive nature of the model provides a far more accessible means of interpreting and comprehending insect anatomy and neuroanatomy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Three-dimensional digital atlases are rapidly becoming indispensible in modern biology. We used serial sectioning combined with manual registration and segmentation of images to develop a comprehensive and detailed three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee head-neck system. This interactive atlas includes skeletal structures of the head and prothorax, the neck musculature, and the nervous system. The scope and resolution of the model exceeds atlases previously developed on similar sized animals, and the interactive nature of the model provides a far more accessible means of interpreting and comprehending insect anatomy and neuroanatomy.

Show MeSH