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Microarray Detection Call Methodology as a Means to Identify and Compare Transcripts Expressed within Syncytial Cells from Soybean (Glycine max) Roots Undergoing Resistant and Susceptible Reactions to the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines).

Klink VP, Overall CC, Alkharouf NW, Macdonald MH, Matthews BF - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Bottom Line: The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods.Conclusion.DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Harned Hall, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.

ABSTRACT
Background. A comparative microarray investigation was done using detection call methodology (DCM) and differential expression analyses. The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate nearly homogeneous populations of plant root cells. Results. The analyses identified the presence of 13,291 transcripts between the 4 different sample types. The transcripts filtered down into a total of 6,267 that were detected as being present in one or more sample types. A comparative analysis of DCM and differential expression methods showed a group of genes that were not differentially expressed, but were expressed at detectable amounts within specific cell types. Conclusion. The DCM has identified patterns of gene expression not shown by differential expression analyses. DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Life cycle of H. glycines. Cysts, encasing the eggs, are able to remain dormant in the soil for years. At some point, the eggs hatch. The second-stage juveniles (J2s) migrate toward the root and burrow into it. The infective J2s (i-J2s) then migrate toward the root stele. A stylet emerges from the anterior end of the nematode. The nematode selects a pericycle cell or neighboring root cell, for its feeding site. The i-J2 then presumably releases substances that then cause major changes in the physiology of the root cell. Those root cells (yellow) subsequently fuse with neighboring cells (light blue), producing a common cytoplasm. The repeated cell fusion events produces a syncytium (orange) that contains approximately 200 merged root cells and serves as the H. glycines feeding site. After the establishment of the syncytium, male nematodes feed for several days. Feeding proceeds until the end of their J3 stage. Meanwhile, the males become sedentary. Subsequently, the males stop feeding, followed by a molt into vermiform J4 males. The males burrow out of the root in preparation for copulation. In contrast to the males, the females become and remain sedentary after the establishment of their feeding site. The female nematodes then increase in size while undergoing both J3 and J4 molts. The J4s then mature, becoming adult feeding females. Ultimately, the female develops into the cyst that encases the eggs.  (a)  Cysts (dark red) with eggs (white) hatch. (b)  Second-stage juveniles (J2) (gray) hatch and migrate toward the root.  (c)  The J2 nematodes burrow into the root and migrate toward the root stele (dark gray).  (d)  Feeding site selection (yellow).  (e)  i-J2 nematodes molt into J3 and then J4. The female is shown here in red. During this time, the original feeding site (yellow) is incorporating adjacent cells (magenta) via cell wall degradation and fusion events. Meanwhile, the male discontinues feeding at the end of its J3 stage.  (f)  The male and female J4 nematodes mature into adults. By this time, the feeding site has matured into a syncytium (green) as shown here where the female is actively feeding. The vermiform male (blue) migrates out of the root and subsequently copulates with the female (red).  (g)  After ~30 days, the female is clearly visible externally because its body emerges from the root tissue. The figure is adapted from Klink et al. [11].
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fig1: Life cycle of H. glycines. Cysts, encasing the eggs, are able to remain dormant in the soil for years. At some point, the eggs hatch. The second-stage juveniles (J2s) migrate toward the root and burrow into it. The infective J2s (i-J2s) then migrate toward the root stele. A stylet emerges from the anterior end of the nematode. The nematode selects a pericycle cell or neighboring root cell, for its feeding site. The i-J2 then presumably releases substances that then cause major changes in the physiology of the root cell. Those root cells (yellow) subsequently fuse with neighboring cells (light blue), producing a common cytoplasm. The repeated cell fusion events produces a syncytium (orange) that contains approximately 200 merged root cells and serves as the H. glycines feeding site. After the establishment of the syncytium, male nematodes feed for several days. Feeding proceeds until the end of their J3 stage. Meanwhile, the males become sedentary. Subsequently, the males stop feeding, followed by a molt into vermiform J4 males. The males burrow out of the root in preparation for copulation. In contrast to the males, the females become and remain sedentary after the establishment of their feeding site. The female nematodes then increase in size while undergoing both J3 and J4 molts. The J4s then mature, becoming adult feeding females. Ultimately, the female develops into the cyst that encases the eggs. (a) Cysts (dark red) with eggs (white) hatch. (b) Second-stage juveniles (J2) (gray) hatch and migrate toward the root. (c) The J2 nematodes burrow into the root and migrate toward the root stele (dark gray). (d) Feeding site selection (yellow). (e) i-J2 nematodes molt into J3 and then J4. The female is shown here in red. During this time, the original feeding site (yellow) is incorporating adjacent cells (magenta) via cell wall degradation and fusion events. Meanwhile, the male discontinues feeding at the end of its J3 stage. (f) The male and female J4 nematodes mature into adults. By this time, the feeding site has matured into a syncytium (green) as shown here where the female is actively feeding. The vermiform male (blue) migrates out of the root and subsequently copulates with the female (red). (g) After ~30 days, the female is clearly visible externally because its body emerges from the root tissue. The figure is adapted from Klink et al. [11].

Mentions: The aforementioned investigations were not designed to study gene expression of the syncytium. However, several labs have made histological studies of the infection process. The studies showed that H. glycines infest the roots and migrate through the cortex during the early stages of the infestation process. After 24 hpi the nematodes reach the stele where they select and establish their feeding sites [27–30, 36]. Consequently, the feeding site initial (FSi), a cell that is usually a pericycle cell, fuses with neighboring cells. The process occurs when the cell walls dissolve and the cytoplasm of adjacent cells (e.g., cortex) merges with the feeding site initial. Cell fusion, thus, results in the formation of a syncytium. Syncytial cells continue to develop in compatible roots into sites from which H. glycines feed (Figure 1) [27–30]. Conversely, syncytial cells of incompatible roots collapse four to five days post infection (dpi) and the nematodes die [27, 28, 30].


Microarray Detection Call Methodology as a Means to Identify and Compare Transcripts Expressed within Syncytial Cells from Soybean (Glycine max) Roots Undergoing Resistant and Susceptible Reactions to the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines).

Klink VP, Overall CC, Alkharouf NW, Macdonald MH, Matthews BF - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Life cycle of H. glycines. Cysts, encasing the eggs, are able to remain dormant in the soil for years. At some point, the eggs hatch. The second-stage juveniles (J2s) migrate toward the root and burrow into it. The infective J2s (i-J2s) then migrate toward the root stele. A stylet emerges from the anterior end of the nematode. The nematode selects a pericycle cell or neighboring root cell, for its feeding site. The i-J2 then presumably releases substances that then cause major changes in the physiology of the root cell. Those root cells (yellow) subsequently fuse with neighboring cells (light blue), producing a common cytoplasm. The repeated cell fusion events produces a syncytium (orange) that contains approximately 200 merged root cells and serves as the H. glycines feeding site. After the establishment of the syncytium, male nematodes feed for several days. Feeding proceeds until the end of their J3 stage. Meanwhile, the males become sedentary. Subsequently, the males stop feeding, followed by a molt into vermiform J4 males. The males burrow out of the root in preparation for copulation. In contrast to the males, the females become and remain sedentary after the establishment of their feeding site. The female nematodes then increase in size while undergoing both J3 and J4 molts. The J4s then mature, becoming adult feeding females. Ultimately, the female develops into the cyst that encases the eggs.  (a)  Cysts (dark red) with eggs (white) hatch. (b)  Second-stage juveniles (J2) (gray) hatch and migrate toward the root.  (c)  The J2 nematodes burrow into the root and migrate toward the root stele (dark gray).  (d)  Feeding site selection (yellow).  (e)  i-J2 nematodes molt into J3 and then J4. The female is shown here in red. During this time, the original feeding site (yellow) is incorporating adjacent cells (magenta) via cell wall degradation and fusion events. Meanwhile, the male discontinues feeding at the end of its J3 stage.  (f)  The male and female J4 nematodes mature into adults. By this time, the feeding site has matured into a syncytium (green) as shown here where the female is actively feeding. The vermiform male (blue) migrates out of the root and subsequently copulates with the female (red).  (g)  After ~30 days, the female is clearly visible externally because its body emerges from the root tissue. The figure is adapted from Klink et al. [11].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig1: Life cycle of H. glycines. Cysts, encasing the eggs, are able to remain dormant in the soil for years. At some point, the eggs hatch. The second-stage juveniles (J2s) migrate toward the root and burrow into it. The infective J2s (i-J2s) then migrate toward the root stele. A stylet emerges from the anterior end of the nematode. The nematode selects a pericycle cell or neighboring root cell, for its feeding site. The i-J2 then presumably releases substances that then cause major changes in the physiology of the root cell. Those root cells (yellow) subsequently fuse with neighboring cells (light blue), producing a common cytoplasm. The repeated cell fusion events produces a syncytium (orange) that contains approximately 200 merged root cells and serves as the H. glycines feeding site. After the establishment of the syncytium, male nematodes feed for several days. Feeding proceeds until the end of their J3 stage. Meanwhile, the males become sedentary. Subsequently, the males stop feeding, followed by a molt into vermiform J4 males. The males burrow out of the root in preparation for copulation. In contrast to the males, the females become and remain sedentary after the establishment of their feeding site. The female nematodes then increase in size while undergoing both J3 and J4 molts. The J4s then mature, becoming adult feeding females. Ultimately, the female develops into the cyst that encases the eggs. (a) Cysts (dark red) with eggs (white) hatch. (b) Second-stage juveniles (J2) (gray) hatch and migrate toward the root. (c) The J2 nematodes burrow into the root and migrate toward the root stele (dark gray). (d) Feeding site selection (yellow). (e) i-J2 nematodes molt into J3 and then J4. The female is shown here in red. During this time, the original feeding site (yellow) is incorporating adjacent cells (magenta) via cell wall degradation and fusion events. Meanwhile, the male discontinues feeding at the end of its J3 stage. (f) The male and female J4 nematodes mature into adults. By this time, the feeding site has matured into a syncytium (green) as shown here where the female is actively feeding. The vermiform male (blue) migrates out of the root and subsequently copulates with the female (red). (g) After ~30 days, the female is clearly visible externally because its body emerges from the root tissue. The figure is adapted from Klink et al. [11].
Mentions: The aforementioned investigations were not designed to study gene expression of the syncytium. However, several labs have made histological studies of the infection process. The studies showed that H. glycines infest the roots and migrate through the cortex during the early stages of the infestation process. After 24 hpi the nematodes reach the stele where they select and establish their feeding sites [27–30, 36]. Consequently, the feeding site initial (FSi), a cell that is usually a pericycle cell, fuses with neighboring cells. The process occurs when the cell walls dissolve and the cytoplasm of adjacent cells (e.g., cortex) merges with the feeding site initial. Cell fusion, thus, results in the formation of a syncytium. Syncytial cells continue to develop in compatible roots into sites from which H. glycines feed (Figure 1) [27–30]. Conversely, syncytial cells of incompatible roots collapse four to five days post infection (dpi) and the nematodes die [27, 28, 30].

Bottom Line: The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods.Conclusion.DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Harned Hall, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.

ABSTRACT
Background. A comparative microarray investigation was done using detection call methodology (DCM) and differential expression analyses. The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate nearly homogeneous populations of plant root cells. Results. The analyses identified the presence of 13,291 transcripts between the 4 different sample types. The transcripts filtered down into a total of 6,267 that were detected as being present in one or more sample types. A comparative analysis of DCM and differential expression methods showed a group of genes that were not differentially expressed, but were expressed at detectable amounts within specific cell types. Conclusion. The DCM has identified patterns of gene expression not shown by differential expression analyses. DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus