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Release of inflammatory mediators by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily by the nonfat cells: a review.

Fain JN - Mediators Inflamm. (2010)

Bottom Line: Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue.In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue.The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. jfain@uthsc.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper considers the role of putative adipokines that might be involved in the enhanced inflammatory response of human adipose tissue seen in obesity. Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue. In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue. The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed. The conclusion is that the release of many inflammatory adipokines by adipose tissue is enhanced in obese humans.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of obesity on total release of 6 adipokines by explants of adipose tissue from obese women. The data are from the report by Fain et al. [42] for release of 6 adipokines by adipose tissue from 22 women divided into tertiles. The lowest tertile was composed of 7 women with total fat masses of 18 to 40 kg with a mean of 29 kg. The middle tertile was composed of fat from 8 women with total fat masses ranging from 41 to 52 kg with a mean of 49 kg. The highest tertile was fat from 7 women with fat masses ranging from 56 to 75 kg (mean of 65 kg). The ratio of total release by the highest tertile as compared to the lowest tertile is shown and all ratios were significant with a P < .001 except for zinc α2 glycoprotein [ZAG] release that was not statistically significant (P > .05).
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fig3: The effect of obesity on total release of 6 adipokines by explants of adipose tissue from obese women. The data are from the report by Fain et al. [42] for release of 6 adipokines by adipose tissue from 22 women divided into tertiles. The lowest tertile was composed of 7 women with total fat masses of 18 to 40 kg with a mean of 29 kg. The middle tertile was composed of fat from 8 women with total fat masses ranging from 41 to 52 kg with a mean of 49 kg. The highest tertile was fat from 7 women with fat masses ranging from 56 to 75 kg (mean of 65 kg). The ratio of total release by the highest tertile as compared to the lowest tertile is shown and all ratios were significant with a P < .001 except for zinc α2 glycoprotein [ZAG] release that was not statistically significant (P > .05).

Mentions: Studies using freshly isolated explants preserve the cross talk between the various types of cells in fat. However, since the primary effect of obesity is to increase adipose tissue mass, it is difficult to know how to express data obtained by primary culture of human fat explants. How do you compare total release by adipose tissue from humans with 20 kg of fat as compared to those with 40 kg? In the studies shown in Figure 3 release in vitro over a 48 hours incubation of omental and subcutaneous fat from each woman per kg of fat was multiplied by the total fat content. The women were then divided by tertiles based on body fat content.


Release of inflammatory mediators by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily by the nonfat cells: a review.

Fain JN - Mediators Inflamm. (2010)

The effect of obesity on total release of 6 adipokines by explants of adipose tissue from obese women. The data are from the report by Fain et al. [42] for release of 6 adipokines by adipose tissue from 22 women divided into tertiles. The lowest tertile was composed of 7 women with total fat masses of 18 to 40 kg with a mean of 29 kg. The middle tertile was composed of fat from 8 women with total fat masses ranging from 41 to 52 kg with a mean of 49 kg. The highest tertile was fat from 7 women with fat masses ranging from 56 to 75 kg (mean of 65 kg). The ratio of total release by the highest tertile as compared to the lowest tertile is shown and all ratios were significant with a P < .001 except for zinc α2 glycoprotein [ZAG] release that was not statistically significant (P > .05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2874930&req=5

fig3: The effect of obesity on total release of 6 adipokines by explants of adipose tissue from obese women. The data are from the report by Fain et al. [42] for release of 6 adipokines by adipose tissue from 22 women divided into tertiles. The lowest tertile was composed of 7 women with total fat masses of 18 to 40 kg with a mean of 29 kg. The middle tertile was composed of fat from 8 women with total fat masses ranging from 41 to 52 kg with a mean of 49 kg. The highest tertile was fat from 7 women with fat masses ranging from 56 to 75 kg (mean of 65 kg). The ratio of total release by the highest tertile as compared to the lowest tertile is shown and all ratios were significant with a P < .001 except for zinc α2 glycoprotein [ZAG] release that was not statistically significant (P > .05).
Mentions: Studies using freshly isolated explants preserve the cross talk between the various types of cells in fat. However, since the primary effect of obesity is to increase adipose tissue mass, it is difficult to know how to express data obtained by primary culture of human fat explants. How do you compare total release by adipose tissue from humans with 20 kg of fat as compared to those with 40 kg? In the studies shown in Figure 3 release in vitro over a 48 hours incubation of omental and subcutaneous fat from each woman per kg of fat was multiplied by the total fat content. The women were then divided by tertiles based on body fat content.

Bottom Line: Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue.In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue.The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. jfain@uthsc.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper considers the role of putative adipokines that might be involved in the enhanced inflammatory response of human adipose tissue seen in obesity. Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue. In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue. The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed. The conclusion is that the release of many inflammatory adipokines by adipose tissue is enhanced in obese humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus