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Molecular characterization of insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in vivo.

Ramnanan CJ, Edgerton DS, Rivera N, Irimia-Dominguez J, Farmer B, Neal DW, Lautz M, Donahue EP, Meyer CM, Roach PJ, Cherrington AD - Diabetes (2010)

Bottom Line: Insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) is associated with sensitive intracellular signaling and molecular inhibition of gluconeogenic (GNG) enzyme mRNA expression.Net GNG flux was restored to basal by 4 h, despite a substantial reduction in PEPCK protein, as gluconeogenically-derived carbon was redirected from lactate efflux to glycogen deposition.In response to acute physiologic hyperinsulinemia, 1) HGP is suppressed primarily through modulation of glycogen metabolism; 2) a transient reduction in net GNG flux occurs and is explained by increased glycolysis resulting from increased F2,6P(2) and decreased fat oxidation; and 3) net GNG flux is not ultimately inhibited by the rise in insulin, despite eventual reduction in PEPCK protein, supporting the concept that PEPCK has poor control strength over the gluconeogenic pathway in vivo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Physiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. chris.ramnanan@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT

Objective: Insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) is associated with sensitive intracellular signaling and molecular inhibition of gluconeogenic (GNG) enzyme mRNA expression. We determined, for the first time, the time course and relevance (to metabolic flux) of these molecular events during physiological hyperinsulinemia in vivo in a large animal model.

Research design and methods: 24 h fasted dogs were infused with somatostatin, while insulin (basal or 8 x basal) and glucagon (basal) were replaced intraportally. Euglycemia was maintained and glucose metabolism was assessed using tracer, (2)H(2)O, and arterio-venous difference techniques. Studies were terminated at different time points to evaluate insulin signaling and enzyme regulation in the liver.

Results: Hyperinsulinemia reduced HGP due to a rapid transition from net glycogen breakdown to synthesis, which was associated with an increase in glycogen synthase and a decrease in glycogen phosphorylase activity. Thirty minutes of hyperinsulinemia resulted in an increase in phospho-FOXO1, a decrease in GNG enzyme mRNA expression, an increase in F2,6P(2), a decrease in fat oxidation, and a transient decrease in net GNG flux. Net GNG flux was restored to basal by 4 h, despite a substantial reduction in PEPCK protein, as gluconeogenically-derived carbon was redirected from lactate efflux to glycogen deposition.

Conclusions: In response to acute physiologic hyperinsulinemia, 1) HGP is suppressed primarily through modulation of glycogen metabolism; 2) a transient reduction in net GNG flux occurs and is explained by increased glycolysis resulting from increased F2,6P(2) and decreased fat oxidation; and 3) net GNG flux is not ultimately inhibited by the rise in insulin, despite eventual reduction in PEPCK protein, supporting the concept that PEPCK has poor control strength over the gluconeogenic pathway in vivo.

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Molecular regulation of GNG in 24 h fasted conscious dogs after either control (CTR) or 8× insulin (8X INS) treatments. A: FOXO1 phosphorylation and relative FOXO1 abundance in nuclear extracts. B: CRTC2 phosphorylation relative to CRTC2 total protein and PGC1α protein levels. C: STAT3 phosphorylation expressed relative to total STAT3 protein. D: Relative mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase. E: PEPCK protein levels. F: G6Pase activity levels. Histograms depict mean values ± SEM. *Significantly different from the value for CTR, P < 0.05.
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Figure 7: Molecular regulation of GNG in 24 h fasted conscious dogs after either control (CTR) or 8× insulin (8X INS) treatments. A: FOXO1 phosphorylation and relative FOXO1 abundance in nuclear extracts. B: CRTC2 phosphorylation relative to CRTC2 total protein and PGC1α protein levels. C: STAT3 phosphorylation expressed relative to total STAT3 protein. D: Relative mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase. E: PEPCK protein levels. F: G6Pase activity levels. Histograms depict mean values ± SEM. *Significantly different from the value for CTR, P < 0.05.

Mentions: Hyperinsulinemia caused a twofold increase in FOXO1 phosphorylation (and 52% decrease in nuclear FOXO1 content) by 30 min (Fig. 7A). FOXO1 levels in nuclear-enriched fractions eventually decreased by 95% in the hyperinsulinemic group. CRTC2 phosphorylation increased approximately twofold, and PGC1α protein levels decreased (43%) by 120 min (Fig. 7B). STAT3 phosphorylation increased approximately twofold, but it took 240 min before a significant change was observed (Fig. 7C). Hyperinsulinemia resulted in rapid (45–50% by 30 min) and marked (80–90% by 240 min) decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA (Fig. 7D). The PEPCK protein level did not change during the first hour of hyperinsulinemia but was reduced 31 and 48% at 120 and 240 min, respectively (Fig. 7E), whereas G6Pase activity was modestly reduced at 240 min (∼30%, NS, Fig. 7F).


Molecular characterization of insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in vivo.

Ramnanan CJ, Edgerton DS, Rivera N, Irimia-Dominguez J, Farmer B, Neal DW, Lautz M, Donahue EP, Meyer CM, Roach PJ, Cherrington AD - Diabetes (2010)

Molecular regulation of GNG in 24 h fasted conscious dogs after either control (CTR) or 8× insulin (8X INS) treatments. A: FOXO1 phosphorylation and relative FOXO1 abundance in nuclear extracts. B: CRTC2 phosphorylation relative to CRTC2 total protein and PGC1α protein levels. C: STAT3 phosphorylation expressed relative to total STAT3 protein. D: Relative mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase. E: PEPCK protein levels. F: G6Pase activity levels. Histograms depict mean values ± SEM. *Significantly different from the value for CTR, P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2874690&req=5

Figure 7: Molecular regulation of GNG in 24 h fasted conscious dogs after either control (CTR) or 8× insulin (8X INS) treatments. A: FOXO1 phosphorylation and relative FOXO1 abundance in nuclear extracts. B: CRTC2 phosphorylation relative to CRTC2 total protein and PGC1α protein levels. C: STAT3 phosphorylation expressed relative to total STAT3 protein. D: Relative mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase. E: PEPCK protein levels. F: G6Pase activity levels. Histograms depict mean values ± SEM. *Significantly different from the value for CTR, P < 0.05.
Mentions: Hyperinsulinemia caused a twofold increase in FOXO1 phosphorylation (and 52% decrease in nuclear FOXO1 content) by 30 min (Fig. 7A). FOXO1 levels in nuclear-enriched fractions eventually decreased by 95% in the hyperinsulinemic group. CRTC2 phosphorylation increased approximately twofold, and PGC1α protein levels decreased (43%) by 120 min (Fig. 7B). STAT3 phosphorylation increased approximately twofold, but it took 240 min before a significant change was observed (Fig. 7C). Hyperinsulinemia resulted in rapid (45–50% by 30 min) and marked (80–90% by 240 min) decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA (Fig. 7D). The PEPCK protein level did not change during the first hour of hyperinsulinemia but was reduced 31 and 48% at 120 and 240 min, respectively (Fig. 7E), whereas G6Pase activity was modestly reduced at 240 min (∼30%, NS, Fig. 7F).

Bottom Line: Insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) is associated with sensitive intracellular signaling and molecular inhibition of gluconeogenic (GNG) enzyme mRNA expression.Net GNG flux was restored to basal by 4 h, despite a substantial reduction in PEPCK protein, as gluconeogenically-derived carbon was redirected from lactate efflux to glycogen deposition.In response to acute physiologic hyperinsulinemia, 1) HGP is suppressed primarily through modulation of glycogen metabolism; 2) a transient reduction in net GNG flux occurs and is explained by increased glycolysis resulting from increased F2,6P(2) and decreased fat oxidation; and 3) net GNG flux is not ultimately inhibited by the rise in insulin, despite eventual reduction in PEPCK protein, supporting the concept that PEPCK has poor control strength over the gluconeogenic pathway in vivo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Physiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. chris.ramnanan@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT

Objective: Insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) is associated with sensitive intracellular signaling and molecular inhibition of gluconeogenic (GNG) enzyme mRNA expression. We determined, for the first time, the time course and relevance (to metabolic flux) of these molecular events during physiological hyperinsulinemia in vivo in a large animal model.

Research design and methods: 24 h fasted dogs were infused with somatostatin, while insulin (basal or 8 x basal) and glucagon (basal) were replaced intraportally. Euglycemia was maintained and glucose metabolism was assessed using tracer, (2)H(2)O, and arterio-venous difference techniques. Studies were terminated at different time points to evaluate insulin signaling and enzyme regulation in the liver.

Results: Hyperinsulinemia reduced HGP due to a rapid transition from net glycogen breakdown to synthesis, which was associated with an increase in glycogen synthase and a decrease in glycogen phosphorylase activity. Thirty minutes of hyperinsulinemia resulted in an increase in phospho-FOXO1, a decrease in GNG enzyme mRNA expression, an increase in F2,6P(2), a decrease in fat oxidation, and a transient decrease in net GNG flux. Net GNG flux was restored to basal by 4 h, despite a substantial reduction in PEPCK protein, as gluconeogenically-derived carbon was redirected from lactate efflux to glycogen deposition.

Conclusions: In response to acute physiologic hyperinsulinemia, 1) HGP is suppressed primarily through modulation of glycogen metabolism; 2) a transient reduction in net GNG flux occurs and is explained by increased glycolysis resulting from increased F2,6P(2) and decreased fat oxidation; and 3) net GNG flux is not ultimately inhibited by the rise in insulin, despite eventual reduction in PEPCK protein, supporting the concept that PEPCK has poor control strength over the gluconeogenic pathway in vivo.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus