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Epidemiology and molecular virus characterization of reemerging rabies, South Africa.

Cohen C, Sartorius B, Sabeta C, Zulu G, Paweska J, Mogoswane M, Sutton C, Nel LH, Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Grobbelaar AA, Dyason E, Blumberg L - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Bottom Line: Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006.Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe.Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa. cherylc@nicd.ac.za

ABSTRACT
The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Provinces of South Africa, and neighboring countries. Inset shows a choropleth map of the number of confirmed dog rabies cases by district in Limpopo Province in 2005–2006 and the location of human cases (4 case-patients, for whom coordinates of place of residence were unavailable, were excluded).
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Figure 1: Provinces of South Africa, and neighboring countries. Inset shows a choropleth map of the number of confirmed dog rabies cases by district in Limpopo Province in 2005–2006 and the location of human cases (4 case-patients, for whom coordinates of place of residence were unavailable, were excluded).

Mentions: Limpopo is the northernmost province in South Africa and shares borders with Zimbabwe and Botswana. To the East, Limpopo is flanked by the Kruger National Park and Mozambique (Figure 1). The climate is variable with temperate and subtropical areas, and most of the population live in rural villages and subsist by farming maize and livestock.


Epidemiology and molecular virus characterization of reemerging rabies, South Africa.

Cohen C, Sartorius B, Sabeta C, Zulu G, Paweska J, Mogoswane M, Sutton C, Nel LH, Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Grobbelaar AA, Dyason E, Blumberg L - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007)

Provinces of South Africa, and neighboring countries. Inset shows a choropleth map of the number of confirmed dog rabies cases by district in Limpopo Province in 2005–2006 and the location of human cases (4 case-patients, for whom coordinates of place of residence were unavailable, were excluded).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2874428&req=5

Figure 1: Provinces of South Africa, and neighboring countries. Inset shows a choropleth map of the number of confirmed dog rabies cases by district in Limpopo Province in 2005–2006 and the location of human cases (4 case-patients, for whom coordinates of place of residence were unavailable, were excluded).
Mentions: Limpopo is the northernmost province in South Africa and shares borders with Zimbabwe and Botswana. To the East, Limpopo is flanked by the Kruger National Park and Mozambique (Figure 1). The climate is variable with temperate and subtropical areas, and most of the population live in rural villages and subsist by farming maize and livestock.

Bottom Line: Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006.Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe.Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa. cherylc@nicd.ac.za

ABSTRACT
The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus