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Removal of the endocrine disrupter butyl benzyl phthalate from the environment.

Chatterjee S, Karlovsky P - Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2010)

Bottom Line: BBP, which readily leaches from these products, is one of the most important environmental contaminants, and the increased awareness of its adverse effects on human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed at removing BBP from the environment via bioremediation.Sonochemical degradation, a unique abiotic remediation technique, and photocatalytic degradation are also discussed.The degradation pathways for BBP are described, and future research directions are considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research Unit, University of Goettingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany. sc_gottingen@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an aryl alkyl ester of 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, is extensively used in vinyl tiles and as a plasticizer in PVC in many commonly used products. BBP, which readily leaches from these products, is one of the most important environmental contaminants, and the increased awareness of its adverse effects on human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed at removing BBP from the environment via bioremediation. This review highlights recent progress in the degradation of BBP by pure and mixed bacterial cultures, fungi, and in sludge, sediment, and wastewater. Sonochemical degradation, a unique abiotic remediation technique, and photocatalytic degradation are also discussed. The degradation pathways for BBP are described, and future research directions are considered.

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Degradation of BBP by fungi. a BBP was incubated with (1) F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase (10 mg protein/L) in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 8.0) (Kim et al. 2002); (2) P. brumalis; (3) T. versicolor; (4) T. versicolor MrP1; (5) T. versicolor MnP2-6; (6) F. fraxinea; (7) P. ostreatus; (8) I. lacteus; (9) M. tremellosus; (10) T. versicolor MrP13; (11) S. commune were incubated with BBP in YMG medium (Seok et al. 2008) using 10% (w/v) fungal mycelium as inoculum. Initial concentration of BBP was 500 mg/L for (1) and 100 mg/L for (2–11). The standard deviation was negligibly small for (1), zero for (2–9), 2.7% for (10), and 0.3% for (11). b BBP was added into 5-day-old fungal cultures grown in YMG medium. Standard deviation for strains (8) and (11) were 2.8% and 4.2%, respectively. For the other strains, the standard deviation values were negligibly small. Initial concentration of BBP was 100 mg/L
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Fig3: Degradation of BBP by fungi. a BBP was incubated with (1) F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase (10 mg protein/L) in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 8.0) (Kim et al. 2002); (2) P. brumalis; (3) T. versicolor; (4) T. versicolor MrP1; (5) T. versicolor MnP2-6; (6) F. fraxinea; (7) P. ostreatus; (8) I. lacteus; (9) M. tremellosus; (10) T. versicolor MrP13; (11) S. commune were incubated with BBP in YMG medium (Seok et al. 2008) using 10% (w/v) fungal mycelium as inoculum. Initial concentration of BBP was 500 mg/L for (1) and 100 mg/L for (2–11). The standard deviation was negligibly small for (1), zero for (2–9), 2.7% for (10), and 0.3% for (11). b BBP was added into 5-day-old fungal cultures grown in YMG medium. Standard deviation for strains (8) and (11) were 2.8% and 4.2%, respectively. For the other strains, the standard deviation values were negligibly small. Initial concentration of BBP was 100 mg/L

Mentions: Figure 3a compares the degradation of BBP by fungi. For a comparison, hydrolysis of BBP by cutinase (10 mg protein/L) from F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi was included, which removed 300 mg/L of BBP within 7.5 h. Other ten white rot fungi degraded 80 to 100 mg/L of BBP within 6 to 12 days. Among these, P. brumalis, T. versicolor, and the transformants of T. versicolor, MrP1 and MnP2-6, degraded 100 mg/L of BBP much faster than the other strains tested. T. versicolor has high lignin-degrading activity and the ligninolytic enzymes, such as Mn-repressed peroxidase or Mn-dependent peroxidase is responsible for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds (Seok et al. 2008; Yeo et al. 2007). Therefore, overexpressed genes of these enzymes facilitated the degradation rate in case of T. versicolor transformants. Other transformant MrP13 can degrade 95 mg/L of BBP but took longer time (12 days), and authors speculated that lower growth rates of the transformant was the responsible factor for this result (Seok et al. 2008). Strain S. commune was poorest BBP degrader among these ten white rot fungi and can degrade only 80.3 mg/L of BBP in 12 days. Figure 3b compared the BBP degradation efficiency among ten white rot fungi grown separately in YMG medium for 5 days before addition of BBP. In this condition, P. brumalis, P. ostreatus, and transformants of T. versicolor, MrP1 and MrP13, showed higher degradation rate. Among these ten strains, I. lacteus was the slowest degrader in this condition which can degrade 92.7 mg/L of BBP in 12 days.Fig. 3


Removal of the endocrine disrupter butyl benzyl phthalate from the environment.

Chatterjee S, Karlovsky P - Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2010)

Degradation of BBP by fungi. a BBP was incubated with (1) F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase (10 mg protein/L) in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 8.0) (Kim et al. 2002); (2) P. brumalis; (3) T. versicolor; (4) T. versicolor MrP1; (5) T. versicolor MnP2-6; (6) F. fraxinea; (7) P. ostreatus; (8) I. lacteus; (9) M. tremellosus; (10) T. versicolor MrP13; (11) S. commune were incubated with BBP in YMG medium (Seok et al. 2008) using 10% (w/v) fungal mycelium as inoculum. Initial concentration of BBP was 500 mg/L for (1) and 100 mg/L for (2–11). The standard deviation was negligibly small for (1), zero for (2–9), 2.7% for (10), and 0.3% for (11). b BBP was added into 5-day-old fungal cultures grown in YMG medium. Standard deviation for strains (8) and (11) were 2.8% and 4.2%, respectively. For the other strains, the standard deviation values were negligibly small. Initial concentration of BBP was 100 mg/L
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2872021&req=5

Fig3: Degradation of BBP by fungi. a BBP was incubated with (1) F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase (10 mg protein/L) in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 8.0) (Kim et al. 2002); (2) P. brumalis; (3) T. versicolor; (4) T. versicolor MrP1; (5) T. versicolor MnP2-6; (6) F. fraxinea; (7) P. ostreatus; (8) I. lacteus; (9) M. tremellosus; (10) T. versicolor MrP13; (11) S. commune were incubated with BBP in YMG medium (Seok et al. 2008) using 10% (w/v) fungal mycelium as inoculum. Initial concentration of BBP was 500 mg/L for (1) and 100 mg/L for (2–11). The standard deviation was negligibly small for (1), zero for (2–9), 2.7% for (10), and 0.3% for (11). b BBP was added into 5-day-old fungal cultures grown in YMG medium. Standard deviation for strains (8) and (11) were 2.8% and 4.2%, respectively. For the other strains, the standard deviation values were negligibly small. Initial concentration of BBP was 100 mg/L
Mentions: Figure 3a compares the degradation of BBP by fungi. For a comparison, hydrolysis of BBP by cutinase (10 mg protein/L) from F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi was included, which removed 300 mg/L of BBP within 7.5 h. Other ten white rot fungi degraded 80 to 100 mg/L of BBP within 6 to 12 days. Among these, P. brumalis, T. versicolor, and the transformants of T. versicolor, MrP1 and MnP2-6, degraded 100 mg/L of BBP much faster than the other strains tested. T. versicolor has high lignin-degrading activity and the ligninolytic enzymes, such as Mn-repressed peroxidase or Mn-dependent peroxidase is responsible for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds (Seok et al. 2008; Yeo et al. 2007). Therefore, overexpressed genes of these enzymes facilitated the degradation rate in case of T. versicolor transformants. Other transformant MrP13 can degrade 95 mg/L of BBP but took longer time (12 days), and authors speculated that lower growth rates of the transformant was the responsible factor for this result (Seok et al. 2008). Strain S. commune was poorest BBP degrader among these ten white rot fungi and can degrade only 80.3 mg/L of BBP in 12 days. Figure 3b compared the BBP degradation efficiency among ten white rot fungi grown separately in YMG medium for 5 days before addition of BBP. In this condition, P. brumalis, P. ostreatus, and transformants of T. versicolor, MrP1 and MrP13, showed higher degradation rate. Among these ten strains, I. lacteus was the slowest degrader in this condition which can degrade 92.7 mg/L of BBP in 12 days.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: BBP, which readily leaches from these products, is one of the most important environmental contaminants, and the increased awareness of its adverse effects on human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed at removing BBP from the environment via bioremediation.Sonochemical degradation, a unique abiotic remediation technique, and photocatalytic degradation are also discussed.The degradation pathways for BBP are described, and future research directions are considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research Unit, University of Goettingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany. sc_gottingen@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an aryl alkyl ester of 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, is extensively used in vinyl tiles and as a plasticizer in PVC in many commonly used products. BBP, which readily leaches from these products, is one of the most important environmental contaminants, and the increased awareness of its adverse effects on human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed at removing BBP from the environment via bioremediation. This review highlights recent progress in the degradation of BBP by pure and mixed bacterial cultures, fungi, and in sludge, sediment, and wastewater. Sonochemical degradation, a unique abiotic remediation technique, and photocatalytic degradation are also discussed. The degradation pathways for BBP are described, and future research directions are considered.

Show MeSH